Daily Arts Web Nucleus


Discover the Arts! Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links

2017 March 13

Image 1: Grasshopper
Sean Garrett (Contemporary Photographer - 2013)
Photograph (Color Autocorrected using IrfanView)
Image 6527083487
Image Credit: Flickr


Image 2: Young Girl with a Candle (1670-1675)
Godfried Schalcken (1643-1706)
Dutch Golden Age Baroque Style
Galleria Palatina (Palazzo Pitti), Florence, Italy
Image Credit: Web Gallery of Art


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no days will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     Explanation: Exodus 10 contains the eighth and ninth plagues. The Eighth Plague was locusts or grasshoppers. It began when the LORD told Moses to go again to Pharaoh, whose heart he had hardened, so that he might show his signs and wonders and that Israel might tell their descendants about their harsh slavery and about the sings and wonders which the LORD did among them (1-2). Moses and Aaron then went to Pharaoh and warned him about pending destruction from a horde of locusts, then left (3-6). However, Pharaoh's servants pleaded with him to come to terms with Moses because their land was destroyed; so Pharaoh brought them back and asked for their terms. When Moses said that he wanted all his people and all their animals to go, Pharaoh told him to take the men only; and he drove Moses and Aaron out (7-11). On their way out, the LORD told Moses to stretch out his staff over the land of Egypt and bring in the locusts; an east wind arose and blew all day and all night; in the morning the locusts came in an unprecedented swarm and ate every plant in the land - crops, fruit trees, and everything else. Pharaoh called Moses and begged for relief; but when it was granted he again hardened his heart and would not let Israel go (12-20).
     Then came the Ninth Plague -- darkness. The LORD told Moses to stretch out his hand toward heaven and a great darkness fell upon Egypt for three days during which no one could see another and no one left their place; but Israel had light in their dwellings. Pharaoh then called Moses and offered to let the children go with him, not just the men, if they left their flocks and herds behind. But Moses said that they must have sacrifices, so the animals must go with them. But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart; and he would not let them go; instead he told Moses to get away from him and never see his face again. Moses said that he would indeed never see Pharaoh's face again. However, God broke Pharaoh's resolution by the last plague, the Death of the Firstborn, and Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron back into his court and told them to take the Israelites and all they possessed and leave (Exodus 12:31-33).
     The darkness which came over the land seems to have had some type of blocking or dampening effect on the lamps, candles, and fires of the Egyptians, but not on those of the Hebrews: they "had light in their dwellings" (verse 23). It may have been caused by the approach of the LORD in a thick cloud as he did at the Red Sea and in the wilderness at Sinai. The fact that it could be "felt," may indicate that it had fog-like, or dust-like properties, especially if it was some natural phenomenon. Or, in my opinion, it may be that the people experienced synesthesia, a condition in which sensations which are usually processed by one sensory organ are, instead, processed by a different sensory organ. For example, I have known of some who reported that they can "taste" certain sounds. In one instance, the sound of a certain type of car horn consistently evoked a metallic taste in the mouth of the person who heard it. It may be that the Egyptians' sense of sight was so overwhelmed by the profundity of the darkness that came upon them that they "felt" the darkness instead of (or in addition to) "seeing" it (21-29).
     [ Sermons: Dominic Smart. Various. ]
     [ Illustration: Today's images illustrate the two plagues described in today's chapter, the Plague of Locusts or Grasshoppers and the Plague of Darkness. The second image illustrates the fact that the Israelites had light in their dwellings. ]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Exodus 10: [27] Exodus 4:21;* Exodus 7:3-4;* Exodus 7:13; Exodus 7:14; Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:19; Exodus 8:32; Exodus 9:7; Exodus 9:12;* Exodus 9:34; Exodus 9:35; Exodus 10:1;* Exodus 10:20; Exodus 10:27;* Exodus 11:10;* Exodus 13:15; Exodus 14:4;* Exodus 14:8;* Exodus 14:17;* Romans 9:17-18*. -- From a Concordance Search. ]
          Notice that verses marked with an asterisk (*) state that God hardened the heart of Pharaoh, et. al.; unmarked verses state that Pharaoh hardened his own heart, or that his heart was in a hardened condition, without specific reference to the cause of the hardening. In Exodus 13:15 (ESV), Pharaoh "stubbornly refused" to let Israel go. I take this to be an act of will on Pharaoh's part whereby he hardened his own heart. Likewise, when God hardened Pharaoh's heart, God did not turn Pharaoh into a robot, unable to act of his own volition: "Let no one say when he is tempted, 'I am being tempted by God,' for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one. But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire." (James 1:13-14, ESV). Rather, God hardened Pharaoh's heart the same way Pharaoh hardened it, by evoking the natural responses of Pharaoh's own heart. The commands, the warnings, and the judgments which God imposed upon Pharaoh elicited sinful responses because God had not given him a heart of understanding and had not opened his heart to respect and love God. Without such converting grace from God, neither Pharaoh, nor we, can do anything but respond sinfully to God. In the words of Romans 3:11-12 (ESV), "No one understands; no one seeks for God. All have turned aside; together they have become worthless; no one does good, not even one."

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Pentateuch Detailed Outline:

Genesis Detailed Outline:

Exodus Detailed Outline:

Exodus 10


1. Promised (Covenanted) Deliverance [cf., Ge 15:16]

{Pentateuch Outline: Section 13. Generations of Levi - Ex 6:14 - Nu 2:34) - 1446 - 1445 B.C. Egypt & Sinai}

B. 4th Generation: Covenant Deliverance From Egypt Completed: (Ex 6:14 - Ex 18:27) - 1446 B.C. Egypt to Sinai

     1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him: 2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.
     3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me. 4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast: 5 And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field: 6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh.
     7 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed? 8 And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who [who and who] are they that shall go? 9 And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD. 10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you [before your faces]. 11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.
     12 And the LORD said unto Moses, stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left. 13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. 14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such. 15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt. 16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you. 17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only. 18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD. 19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt. 20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.
     21 And the LORD said unto Moses, stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt. 22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: 23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings. 24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you. 25 And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God. 26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither. 27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go. 28 And Pharaoh said unto him, get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die. 29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.

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