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2017 September 9
The Divine Eros Defeats The Earthly Eros (or Sacred and Profane Love) -- (1602)
Giovanni Baglione (1566-1643)
Late Mannerist / Early Baroque Style
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome, Italy
Image Source: Web Gallery of Art
[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]
Explanation: In 1 Samuel 4 the ark of God was captured by the Philistines. This happened in a profane moral climate within Israel, as detailed in the previous two chapters.
After Samuel became established as a prophet to all of Israel, Israel went out to war against the Philistines. But they lost about four thousand men. So they went to Shiloh to bring the ark of the covenant to the battle, thinking it would save them from their enemies. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas went with the ark (1-4).
When the ark came into the camp, the soldiers shouted with a great shout; and the earth rang with the noise. When the Philistines realized that the ark had come into the camp they were filled with fear because they had heard how God delivered Israel from Egypt. But they shook off their fears and encouraged one another to fight (5-9).
When they went to war with Israel, they killed thirty thousand Israelites, took the ark, and slew Hophni and Phinehas (10-11).
A man from the tribe of Benjamin ran back to Shiloh with news of the disaster. When Eli heard the news, especially the news that the ark had been taken, he fell backwards off his seat and broke his neck. Note that it was not the news of the death of his sons that killed Esau, it was the news of the capture of the ark. Such was his devotion to the LORD. He had judged Israel for forty years (12-18).
His daughter in law, the wife of Phinehas, went into premature labor and died, calling the son she delivered Ichabod ("the glory is departed"). And she said, "The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken." Like Eli, her heart was with the LORD. The news of the death of her husband did not kill her, but the news of the loss of the ark did (19-22).
[ Sermons: Stuart Olyott. William W Goligher. Various. ]
[ Illustration: Today's painting was chosen to represent the profane moral climate which prevailed among the Israelites in Samuel's day. All of God's commandments were being broken, not just the one depicted. Hophni and Phinehas, who's deaths are featured prominently in today's chapter, were, however, noted for their sexual immorality. ]
PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.
[ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: 1 Samuel 4:
 Jeremiah 7:4-5; Jeremiah 7:7; 2 Samuel 15:25.
 Psalm 78:59-61.
 1 Samuel 2:34.
 2 Samuel 18:21-27; 2 Samuel 2:18.
 Psalm 137:5-6.
-- From Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers ]
[ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]
[ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]
[ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]
HARMONY OF THE LAW
HEBREW AND GREEK INTERLINEAR BIBLES
1 Samuel Detailed Outline
1 Samuel 4
Note: In the Hebrew Bible 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel are one book. Also, 1 Kings and 2 Kings are one book.
Samuel and Kings reveal Israel's history from Samuel to the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity.
1 and 2 Chronicles, originally one book, trace the history of God's people from creation to the end of the Babylonian Captivity.
1. Samuel's Reign as the Last of the Judges (1 Samuel 1:1 - 8:22) - 1100 - 1050 B.C. Israel
A. Samuel's Early Life (1 Samuel 1:1 - 3:21)
B. Samuel's Life From Youth to Old Age (1 Samuel 4:1 - 8:22)
1. Samuel & the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:1 - 7:14)
1 And the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside Ebenezer: and the Philistines pitched in Aphek.
2 And the Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines: and they slew of the army in the field about four thousand men.
3 And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel said, Wherefore hath the LORD smitten us to day before the Philistines? Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it cometh among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies.
4 So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth between the cherubims: and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.
5 And when the ark of the covenant of the LORD came into the camp, all Israel shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again.
6 And when the Philistines heard the noise of the shout, they said, What meaneth the noise of this great shout in the camp of the Hebrews? And they understood that the ark of the LORD was come into the camp.
7 And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, God is come into the camp. And they said, Woe unto us! for there hath not been such a thing heretofore [heretofore trebly].
8 Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness.
9 Be strong, and quit yourselves like men, O ye Philistines, that ye be not servants [subdued you shall serve / some versions have lest you shall serve] unto the Hebrews, as they have been to you [as they have served you]: quit yourselves like men, and fight.
10 And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
11 And the ark of God was taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain.
12 And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head.
13 And when he came, lo, Eli sat upon a seat by the wayside [side of a road] watching: for his heart trembled for the ark of God. And when the man came into the city, and told it, all the city cried out.
14 And when Eli heard the noise of the crying, he said, What meaneth the noise of this tumult? And the man came in hastily, and told Eli.
15 Now Eli was ninety and eight years old; and his eyes were dim, that he could not see.
16 And the man said unto Eli, I am he that came out of the army, and I fled to day out of the army. And he said, What is there done, my son?
17 And the messenger answered and said, Israel is fled before the Philistines, and there hath been also a great slaughter among the people, and thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead, and the ark of God is taken.
18 And it came to pass, when he made mention of the ark of God, that he fell from off the seat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck brake, and he died: for he was an old man, and heavy. And he had judged Israel forty years.
19 And his daughter in law, Phinehas' wife, was with child, near to be delivered: and when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father in law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed; for her pains came upon her.
20 And about the time of her death the women that stood by her [the ones stationed upon her] said unto her, Fear not; for thou hast born a son. But she answered not, neither did she regard [she placed her heart] it.
21 And she named the child Ichabod, saying, The glory is departed from Israel: because the ark of God was taken, and because of her father in law and her husband.
22 And she said, The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken.
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