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Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links
2017 September 22
David Contemplating the Head of Goliath (c. 1610)
Orazio Gentileschi (1563-1639)
Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany
Image Source: Web Gallery of Art
[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]
Explanation: In 1 Samuel 17 David kills Goliath. The armies of the Philistines and of the Israelites faced off on opposite mountains with a valley in between. The Philistine champion was Goliath of Gath. He was perhaps 9 feet 6 inches tall -- perhaps more, perhaps less, depending on the length of a cubit. He was strong, well armed, and covered with armor. According to Smith's Bible Dictionary, "He was possibly descended from the old Rephaim [GIANTS], of whom a scattered remnant took refuge with the Philistines after their dispersion by the Ammonites. Deuteronomy 2:20; Deuteronomy 2:21; 2 Samuel 21:22)." He challenged the Israelites to stop battling and send a champion to fight him in a decisive battle which would determine which nation would serve the other (1-11).
At that time David had returned home from Saul's court to tend his father's sheep while his three eldest brothers took their places in Saul's army. Goliath continued to offer his challenge for forty days (12-16). While these challenges continued, Jesse sent his son David to deliver some food to his brothers and their captain of a thousand on the battle front and to find out how his brothers were. He was also to bring back a "pledge" or "token" from his brothers. This has been interpreted as a token of their welfare, a receipt for debts they might owe, their personal replies to their father, or the like (17-18).
David left the sheep with a keeper and arrived at the front as a battle was beginning. He left his carriage with a keeper and came to his brothers and talked to them. While they were talking, Goliath came out and again challenged Israel to send a champion to fight him (19-23). When the Israelites saw him they fled. And the men around David told him that, for the man who killed Goliath, Saul would make him rich, would give him his daughter, and would make his father's house free in Israel. David inquired further about what would be done for the man who killed Goliath, and he said, "Who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God." And the men to whom David was speaking again confirmed the honors that awaited the man who killed Goliath (24-27). But when Eliab, David's eldest brother, heard David speaking to the men, he scolded David for leaving the sheep and coming with a naughty heart to see the battle. But David said, "What have I now done? Is there not a cause?" Or, "it was only a word" -- a simple request for information. He again asks others about the reward that would be given (perhaps surprised that no one would fight Goliath with such a reward in prospect and with the Living God on their side); and they gave him the same answer (28-30).
This came to the attention of Saul who sent for David. And David volunteered to fight Goliath. He told Saul how he had killed a lion and a bear which had attacked his flock; and he said that Goliath would be like one of them since he had defied the armies of the Living God. So Saul sent him to fight Goliath (31-37). Saul gave David his armor, but he had not practiced the use of the items; so he put them off, took his staff, and picked five smooth stones out to the brook, put them in his shepherd's bag, and went with his sling in his hand (38-40). Goliath and his shield-bearer came toward David. And Goliath scorned David and cursed him by his gods; but David said that he came in the name of the LORD of Hosts who would deliver Goliath into his hand and would show those assembled that the battle was the LORD's (41-47).
And David hit Goliath in the forehead with a stone from his bag; and he fell face first on the ground (48-49). David then took Goliath's sword and cut off his head. Apparently, from the fact that Scripture says that the stone and the sword blows were both fatal, we are to infer that both are looked at as, in effect, one act. In accord with this interpretation, it would seem that Goliath was slain by a combination of stone and sword blows. So the Philistines fled; and the Israelites chased them. And David took the head of Goliath and put it in Jerusalem; but he put his armor in his tent (50-54).
Saul asked Abner who David's father was. Abner did not know; but he brought David to Saul. And David told Saul that he was the son of Jesse the Bethlehemite. Saul's question does not mean that he did not recognize David. He simply asked for further information about David's parentage. Although this information had been given to Saul in the previous chapter (1 Samuel 16:18-22), and even though he had sent David back to his father prior to the Goliath incident (verse 15), Saul may not have taken special note of the name of David's father; or he may have simply been making completely certain of the relationship. Perhaps, too, during the time that they were separated, Saul forgot or partially forgot David, particularly if David's appearance changed somewhat as he matured. Some have thought that Saul's words indicate that this incident happened prior to those described in the previous chapter; but this interpretation creates chronological problems which make the idea improbable. The idea that Saul had a partial memory lapse and that he simply wanted to be completely certain of his information seems more credible to this interpreter (55-58).
[ Sermons: Stuart Olyott. William Still. Various. ]
[ Illustration: Today's painting depicts the key event in today's chapter, David slaying Goliath. ]
PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.
[ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: 1 Samuel 17:
[3-4] Joshua 11:22.
 John 1:11.
 Numbers 10:14.
 2 Samuel 21:19.
 1 Samuel 16:13.
 Psalm 44:6-8; Psalm 33:16-20.
 Judges 20:16.
 Joshua 15:36.
 Joshua 15:63; Judges 1:21; 1 Samuel 21:9; 2 Samuel 6:17; Acts 15:16.
 1 Samuel 16:14-23.
-- From Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers ]
[ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]
[ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]
[ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]
HARMONY OF THE LAW
HEBREW AND GREEK INTERLINEAR BIBLES
1 Samuel Detailed Outline
1 Samuel 17
Note: In the Hebrew Bible 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel are one book. Also, 1 Kings and 2 Kings are one book.
Samuel and Kings reveal Israel's history from Samuel to the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity.
1 and 2 Chronicles, originally one book, trace the history of God's people from creation to the end of the Babylonian Captivity.
1. Samuel's Reign as the Last of the Judges (1 Samuel 1:1 - 8:22) - 1100 - 1050 B.C. Israel
A. Samuel's Early Life (1 Samuel 1:1 - 3:21)
B. Samuel's Life From Youth to Old Age (1 Samuel 4:1 - 8:22)
1. Samuel & the Philistines (1 Samuel 4:1 - 7:14)
2. Samuel & the Israelites (1 Samuel 7:15 - 8:22)
2. Saul's Reign as the First God-Given King over All of Israel (1 Samuel 9:1 - 31:13) - 1050 - 1010 B.C. Israel
A. Saul and Samuel (1 Samuel 9:1 - 14:52)
B. Saul and David (1 Samuel 15:1 - 31:13)
1 Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim.
2 And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines.
3 And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them.
4 And there went out a champion [a man between] out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.
5 And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.
6 And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders.
7 And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him.
8 And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me.
9 If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us.
10 And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.
11 When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.
12 Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah [Bethlehem Judah], whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul.
13 And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed [walked after] Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.
14 And David was the youngest: and the three eldest followed [walked after] Saul.
15 But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.
16 And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.
17 And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn, and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren;
18 And carry these ten cheeses [cuts of cheese] unto the captain of their thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.
19 Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, were in the valley of Elah, fighting with the Philistines.
20 And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle.
21 For Israel and the Philistines had put the battle in array, army against army.
22 And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran into the army, and came and saluted [he is inquiring as to the peace of] his brethren.
23 And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion [a man between], the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spake according to the same words: and David heard them.
24 And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from [from his face] him, and were sore afraid.
25 And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel.
26 And David spake to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the reproach from Israel? for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?
27 And the people answered him after this manner, saying, So shall it be done to the man that killeth him.
28 And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why camest thou down hither? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle.
29 And David said, What have I now done? Is there not a cause?
30 And he turned from him toward another, and spake after the same manner: and the people answered him again after the former manner.
31 And when the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed them before Saul: and he sent for him.
32 And David said to Saul, Let no man's heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.
33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.
34 And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept [became a shepherd to] his father's sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:
35 And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.
36 Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.
37 David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee.
38 And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail.
39 And David girded his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not proved it. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved them. And David put them off him.
40 And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd's bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.
41 And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield went before him.
42 And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.
43 And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.
44 And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.
45 Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.
46 This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel.
47 And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD'S, and he will give you into our hands.
48 And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.
49 And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.
50 So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.
51 Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled.
52 And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.
53 And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents.
54 And David took the head of the Philistine, and bought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armour in his tent.
55 And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this youth? And Abner said, As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.
56 And the king said, Enquire thou whose son the stripling is.
57 And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and bought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand.
58 And Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, thou young man? And David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.
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