Daily Arts Web Nucleus


Discover the Arts! Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links

2017 November 11

Jeroboam's Sacrifice at Bethel (1656)
Gerbrandt van den Eeckhout (1621-1674)
Dutch Golden Age Baroque Style
State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Image Source: Art Hermitage


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     Explanation: In 1 Kings 12, Rehoboam came to the important and historical city of Shechem, centrally located among the northern tribes, to be installed as king of Israel after the death of his father Solomon. Jerusalem, which was the capital city of the kingdom, would have been the natural place for this coronation; so the choice of Shechem may have been a concession to the northern tribes to more firmly establish Rehoboam's connection, not just to his own tribe of Judah, but to all of the other tribes of Israel, as well. Jeroboam and other officials came to Rehoboam and asked for relief from taxes and forced labor (1 Kings 5:13-14; 1 Kings 11:28 -- compare 1 Samuel 8:11-17). They considered this to be a grievous bondage. In a sense, it was similar in kind, though not in degree, to the bondage in Egypt. Under Solomon they had experienced peace and liberty (1 Kings 4:25, 1 Kings 9:15, 1 Kings 9:22-23); but this had either disappeared, or more probably, in my opinion, was overshadowed by the continuing burdens which had long coexisted with the benefits provided by Solomon. Rehoboam asked for three days to consider their request (1-5).
     He first consulted with his older advisers who had served Solomon. They advised him to serve the people, speak kindly to them, and relieve their burdens. His younger advisers advised him to speak sternly to the people and to increase their burdens. Possibly they thought this would intimidate the other tribes into submission (6-11).
     Rehoboam forsook the counsel of the older men and spoke to the people in accord with the harsh measures recommended by the young advisers. This harsh measure was the end process of a decline into folly from which Israel did not recover until after the Exile. This decline is documented in chapters 10, 11, and 12. Chapter 10 reveals Solomon's unsurpassed wisdom: "So king Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom" (verse 23). Chapter 11, in complete contrast to chapter 10, reveals Solomon's deep, idolatrous folly. The present chapter, chapter l2, reveals the appalling folly of Solomon's son, Rehoboam, by which the kingdom was divided (12-15).
     When Rehoboam delivered his answer to the people, they repudiated him and the household of David. They stoned Adoram, who was over the tribute; and Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem. The people then made Rehoboam king over ten tribes. these ten tribes retained the name "Israel," while Judah and Benjamin, under Rehoboam, took the name "Judah" (16-20).
     Rehoboam gathered an army and prepared to fight Israel and reunite the kingdom. But God, speaking through the prophet Shemaiah, forbade the action, noting that the division had been sent by him. So they stopped the planned war and departed (21-24).
     Jeroboam enlarged and fortified Shechem and did the same for Penuel. He was concerned that the people might return their loyalty to the house of David if they went to Jerusalem to worship, and might even attempt to kill him. He therefore made two golden calf idols and put them at opposite ends of his kingdom in Bethel (in the south) and Dan (in the north). He then centralized worship for Israel in Dan. He also made priests of non-Levites. In addition, he instituted a new feast and made offerings on the altars in Dan and Bethel and burned incense (25-33).
     However, in the Kingdom of Judah, under Rehoboam's rule, various people from all of the tribes of Israel came to Jerusalem to sacrifice to the LORD; they strengthened Judah; and they and Judah walked for three years in the ways of David and Solomon (2 Chronicles 11:16-17).
     [ Sermons: William Still. Nick Needham. Various. ]
     [ Illustration: Today's painting depicts the key moment of today's chapter, the moment when Rehoboam turned to idolatry, taking the ten tribes with him. ]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

     [Chapter 12: Related Scriptures: 2 Chronicles 10; 2 Chronicles 11:1-4; 2 Chronicles 11:13-14; 2 Chronicles 11:15; 2 Chronicles 11:16-17; 1 Kings 14:21.]
     [1] 2 Samuel 5:3; 2 Samuel 2:4; 2 Samuel 19:9-10; 2 Samuel 19:41-43; 2 Samuel 20:1-2; 1 Kings 1:35; 1 Kings 4:1.
     [2] 2 Chronicles 10:2.
     [4] 1 Kings 4:20; 1 Kings 9:20-22.
     [16] 2 Samuel 20:1.
     [17] 2 Chronicles 11:13-16.
     [18] 2 Samuel 20:24; 1 Kings 4:6; 1 Kings 5:14, .
     [20] 2 Samuel 17:27.
     [22] 2 Chronicles 12:5-8; 2 Chronicles 12:15.
     [25] Genesis 12:6; Genesis 33:18; Genesis 35:4; Genesis 37:12-13; Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:20-21; Joshua 8:33-35; Joshua 24:1; Joshua 24:32; Genesis 32:30-31; Judges 8:8; Judges 8:17.
     [27] 1 Kings 11:37-38.
     [28] Psalm 106:20; Exodus 32:8; Deuteronomy 4:15-18.
     [29] Genesis 28:19; Genesis 35:14-15; Judges 20:18; Judges 20:26; Judges 20:31; Judges 21:2; 1 Samuel 7:16; Judges 18:30.
     [31] 2 Chronicles 11:13-14.
     [32] 1 Kings 8:2; 1 Kings 8:63.

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

1 Kings Detailed Outline

1 Kings 12

Notes: In the Hebrew Bible 1 Kings and 2 Kings were one Book. Overlapping dates for various kings indicate overlapping reigns (co-regencies).

1. The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1:1 - 1 Kings 11:43) - 971 - 931 B.C. Israel

A. His Rise by Wisdom (1 Kings 1:1 - 10:29)

1. The Initial Consolidation of His Kingdom (1 Kings 1:1 - 2:46)

2. The Development of His Kingdom (1 Kings 3:1 - 10:29)

B. His Decline by Idolatry (11:1-43)

2. The Divided Kingdom (1 Kings 12:1 - 2 Kings 25:30) - 931 - 560 B.C. Israel

A. Jeroboam of Israel (1 Kings 12:1 - 14:20) - {931-910}

Map | Time Line

     1 And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for all Israel were come to Shechem to make him king. 2 And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt;) 3 That they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying, 4 Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee. 5 And he said unto them, Depart yet for three days, then come again to me. And the people departed.
     6 And king Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do ye advise that I may answer this people? 7 And they spake unto him, saying, If thou wilt be a servant unto this people this day, and wilt serve them, and answer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be thy servants for ever [all of the days]. 8 But he forsook the counsel of the old men, which they had given him, and consulted with the young men that were grown up with him, and which stood before him: 9 And he said unto them, What counsel give ye that we may answer [return word to] this people, who have spoken to me, saying, Make the yoke which thy father did put upon us lighter? 10 And the young men that were grown up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou speak unto this people that spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it lighter unto us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins. 11 And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke: my father hath chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
     12 So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day. 13 And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him; 14 And spake to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. 15 Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the LORD, that he might perform his saying, which the LORD spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
     16 So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered [returned word] the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents. 17 But as for the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them. 18 Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the tribute [burden]; and all Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. Therefore king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem. 19 So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day. 20 And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was come again, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him king over all Israel: there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.
     21 And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah, with the tribe of Benjamin, an hundred and fourscore thousand chosen men, which were warriors [chosen men, doing battle], to fight against the house of Israel, to bring the kingdom again to Rehoboam the son of Solomon. 22 But the word of God came unto Shemaiah the man of God, saying, 23 Speak unto Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and unto all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the remnant of the people, saying, 24 Thus saith the LORD, Ye shall not go up, nor fight against your brethren the children of Israel: return every man to his house; for this thing is from me. They hearkened therefore to the word of the LORD, and returned to depart, according to the word of the LORD.
     25 Then Jeroboam built Shechem in mount Ephraim, and dwelt therein; and went out from thence, and built Penuel. 26 And Jeroboam said in his heart, Now shall the kingdom return to the house of David: 27 If this people go up do sacrifice in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn again unto their lord, even unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam king of Judah. 28 Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which bought [lifted] thee up out of the land of Egypt. 29 And he set the one in Bethel, and the other put he in Dan. 30 And this thing became a sin: for the people went to worship before the one, even unto Dan. 31 And he made an house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi. 32 And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he offered upon the altar. So did he in Bethel, sacrificing unto the calves that he had made: and he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made. 33 So he offered upon the altar which he had made in Bethel the fifteenth day of the eighth month, even in the month which he had devised of his own heart; and ordained a feast unto the children of Israel: and he offered upon the altar, and burnt incense.

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