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2019 March 23
Lamentations 3

Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus (1768)
Benjamin West (1738-1820)
Neoclassical Style
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Image Source: Web Gallery of Art

     [ Illustration: Today's painting symbolizes the acceptance or resignation aspect of the grieving process, which is prominently featured in today's chapter. ]


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     The Book of Lamentations Overview: Lamentations is a series of 5 poems lamenting the final fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians in about 586 B.C. The first four chapters are acrostic poems. The fifth chapter is a non-acrostic poem. Each chapter has 22 verses except for chapter 3 which has 66 verses, consisting of 22 triplet acrostics. The first chapter follows the normal alphabetic order; but chapters 2-4 have a reversal of letter number 16 (called "Ayin") with number 17 ( called "Pe") -- (i.e., the order is Pe, Ayin in chapters 2, 3, and 4). Tradition holds that Jeremiah is the author, and the content of the book is consistent with Jeremiah's style in the Book of Jeremiah - particularly his use of poetry, laments, and variations of speakers (where he speaks, the people speak, and the LORD speaks, often without formal introduction - discernible by context - which is a device used by other prophets and poets in Scripture). For purposes of illustration, I've analyzed the chapters for major components of the mourning process in accord with "The Five Stages of Grief," as well as for content.
     NOTE: David Dorsey has analyzed Lamentations chiastically. (A chiastic structure is one in which elements in the first part repeat in reverse order in the second part). Key divisions are indicated by changes in speakers. This pattern is also noted below in a modified form in my analysis. Dorsey's analysis is described in The Literary Structure of the Old Testament, David A. Dorsey, 1999, pp. 246-252.

     Explanation: Acceptance. In Lamentations 3, verses 21-41 show an acceptance of the disaster which has come upon the people of Jerusalem. Sin is acknowledged in detail along with an acknowledgement of God's love and mercy. From this, hope emerges in spite of the deep depression which comes before. This transitions to a sense of repentance and a call for judgment upon Israel's enemies. By its placement in the chapter and in the book, acceptance and hope is the central feature of the Book of Lamentations. In the painting above, acceptance -- in the sense of coming to terms with death -- is demonstrated by Agrippina coming to Brundisium to bury to bury the ashes of her husband Germanicus.
     Jeremiah, as a representative of Israel, opens the chapter by bemoaning his affliction, being led into darkness, and feeling the anguish of having God turn against him (1-3).
     He feels aged, "tastes" gall, travails, and is in a dark deadness (4-6).
     He is hedged in, chained, unheard when he cries out, and walks stony, crooked paths (7-9).
     The LORD was, to him, like a bear which tore him in pieces or a marksman who used him for target practice (10-12).
     He had a deadly wound, was derided, and filled with bitterness (13-15).
     His teeth were broken; he was covered with ashes, far from peace and prosperity, and without strength or hope (16-18).
     As he thought on these miseries his soul was humbled, yet hope arose (19-21).
     He realized that Israel was not consumed because of the LORD's mercies and unfailing compassion which are new every morning; his faithfulness is great and brings hope (22-24).
     It is good, says Jeremiah, to wait for the Lord because he is good to those who hope in him and quietly wait for him (25-27).
     He therefore should be silent and give his cheek to the smiter (28-30).
     The Lord will not cast off forever because of his compassion and because he does not willingly afflict the children of men (31-33).
     The Lord does not approve of crushing prisoners or turning aside their rights, or subverting them in their cause (34-36).
     All that happens comes from the Lord, so why should a man complain about the punishment of his sins (37-39)?
     Rather, we should search and try our ways and turn again to the LORD because we have transgressed and rebelled (40-42).
     It is for our sins that he has covered himself with anger, shut out their prayer, and made us like offscouring and refuse (43-45).
     Their enemies spoke against them; fear and a snare came upon them with desolation and destruction, causing Jeremiah to weep (46-48).
     He weeps constantly till the LORD looks down (49-51).
     He was chased by his enemies, cut-off in the dungeon, and plunged beneath the waters (52-54).
     He calls to the LORD from the dungeon, and the LORD hears, and draws near, and says, "Fear not" (55-57).
     The Lord pleaded his causes, redeemed his life, saw the wrong, judged his cause, and saw the evils of his enemies (58-60).
     The LORD heard their reproach and their imaginations against Jeremiah; so Jeremiah asks to LORD to watch them while they mock him (61-63).
     He asks the LORD to judge his enemies with sorrow, with his curse, and with persecution and destruction in anger (64-66).

     [ Sermons: David VanDrunen. Maurice Roberts. Various. ]

Bible Chronologies -- Genesis to Revelation

[Traditional Patriarchal Chronology. Judges Period Chronology 1. Judges Period Chronology 2. Kings of Judah and Israel #1. Kings of Judah and Israel #2].

[Post Exile Chronology 1. Post Exile Chronology 2. Post Exile Chronology 3.]

[Prophets Chronology 1. Prophets Chronology 2. Prophets Chronology 3. Prophets Chronology 4.]

[Intertestamental Period Chronology 1. Intertestamental Period Chronology 2. Intertestamental Period Chronology 3.
Intertestamental Period Chronology 4. Intertestamental Period Chronology 5.]

[New Testament Chronology 1. New Testament Chronology 2. New Testament Chronology 3. New Testament Chronology 4. New Testament Chronology 5.]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Lamentations 3: Lamentations 1. Lamentations 2. Lamentations 3. Lamentations 4. Lamentations 5. ]
[1] Lamentations 1:12-14; Job 19:21; Psalm 71:20; Psalm 88:7, 15-16; Isaiah 53:3; Jeremiah 15:17-18; Jeremiah 20:14-18; Jeremiah 38:6; Proverbs 22:8; Isaiah 10:5.
[2] Lamentations 2:1; Deuteronomy 28:29.
[3] Lamentations 2:4-7.
[4] Psalm 31:9-10; Jeremiah 50:17.
[5] Jeremiah 8:14.
[6] Psalm 143:3.
[7] Lamentations 1:14; Lamentations 5:5.
[8] Psalm 22:2.
[9] Isaiah 30:28; Isaiah 63:17.
[10] Hosea 13:8; Amos 5:19; Jeremiah 4:7; Jeremiah 5:6; Jeremiah 49:19; Jeremiah 50:44.
[11] Ezra 9:3.
[12] Job 16:12.
[13] Psalm 127:5.
[14] Jeremiah 20:7; Job 30:9.
[15] Exodus 12:8; Numbers 9:11.
[16] Proverbs 20:17.
[17] Psalm 88:14.
[18] Job 6:11; Job 17:15; Psalm 31:22.
[19] Lamentations 1:7; Psalm 69:21.
[20] Psalm 42:4.
[21] Psalm 77:7-11; Psalm 130:7.
[22] Ezra 9:8-9, 13-15; Nehemiah 9:31; Micah 7:18-19.
[23] Psalm 30:5.
[24] Psalm 16:5; Psalm 73:26; Psalm 142:5; Psalm 119:57; Numbers 18:20.
[25] Psalm 27:14.
[26] 1 Peter 1:13.
[27] Jeremiah 15:10; Jeremiah 20:7-18.
[28] Lamentations 2:10.
[29] 2 Chronicles 33:12.
[30] Job 16:10; Matthew 5:39; Jeremiah 20:1-6; Jeremiah 28:15; Isaiah 1:6.
[31] Psalm 77:7; Jeremiah 3:5; Jeremiah 3:12; Psalm 30:5; Job 5:18; Isaiah 54:8.
[32]Psalm 30:5.
[33] Psalm 33:9.
[34] Exodus 23:6.
[35] Psalm 140:12.
[36] Habakkuk 1:13.
[37] Psalm 33:9-11.
[38] Job 2:10.
[39] Jeremiah 45:5.
[40] Psalm 119:59.
[41] Psalm 25:1.
[42] Lamentations 1:18.
[43] Lamentations 2:1.
[44] Jeremiah 15:1; Zechariah 7:13.
[45] 1 Corinthians 4:13.
[46] Lamentations 2:15.
[47] Jeremiah 48:43; Isaiah 24:17; Isaiah 37:26.
[48] Lamentations 1:16; Lamentations 2:18; Psalm 119:136.
[49] Lamentations 1:16.
[50] Lamentations 2:20.
[51] Lamentations 1:4; Lamentations 1:18; Lamentations 2:20-21.
[52] Psalm 35:7; Psalm 35:19; Psalm 69:4; Psalm 42:7; Psalm 88:7; Psalm 124:4.
[53] Jeremiah 38:6-9.
[54] Job 17:11-16.
[55] Psalm 88:6.
[56] Jeremiah 38:7.
[57] Psalm 145:18; Revelation 2:10.
[58] Jeremiah 26:8-17; Jeremiah 37:14; Jeremiah 38:4.
[59] Jeremiah 20:7-10.
[60] Jeremiah 11:19; Jeremiah 18:18.
[61] Lamentations 5:1.
[62] Psalm 140:3.
[63] Deuteronomy 6:7;Deuteronomy 11:19; Psalm 139:2.
[64] Psalm 28:4; 2 Timothy 4:14.
[65] 2 Corinthians 3:15.
[66] Psalm 35:6.
     -- From Treasury of Scripture Knowledge & Others ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). PROVERBS: Book of Proverbs. ECCLESIASTES: Book of Ecclesiastes Dramatized. SONG OF SOLOMON: Song of Solomon Dramatized. ISAIAH: Isaiah Dramatized. JEREMIAH: Jeremiah Dramatized. LAMENTATIONS: Lamentations Dramatized. VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Lamentations Detailed Outline


Lamentations 3

Map 1: Bible Nations | Map 2: Empire of David and Solomon Map 3: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel | Post Exile Chronology.

The Hope for Mercy in Spite of Wrath (3:1 - 3:66) - 586 B.C. Israel

A. Affliction (3:1-18)


1 I am the man that hath seen affliction
by the rod of his wrath.

2 He hath led me,
and bought me into darkness,
but not into light.

Surely against me is he turned;
he turneth his hand against me all the day.


6 He hath set me in dark places,
as they that be dead of old.


7 He hath hedged me about,
that I cannot get out:
he hath made my chain heavy.

9 He hath inclosed my ways with hewn stone,
he hath made my paths crooked.


10 He was unto me as a bear lying in wait,
and as a lion in secret places.

12 He hath bent his bow,
and set me as a mark for the arrow.


13 He hath caused the arrows of his quiver
to enter into my reins.

14 I was a derision to all my people;
and their song all the day.


B. Hope (3:19-66)

18 And I said,
My strength and my hope is perished from the LORD:


19 Remembering mine affliction and my misery,
the wormwood and the gall.

20 My soul hath them still in remembrance [remembering she remembers],
and is humbled in me.

21 This I recall to my mind,
therefore have I hope.


22 It is of the LORD'S mercies that we are not consumed,
because his compassions fail not.

23 They are new every morning:
great is thy faithfulness.

24 The LORD is my portion,
saith my soul;
therefore will I hope in him.


25 The LORD is good unto them that wait for him,
to the soul that seeketh him.

26 It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for
the salvation of the LORD.

27 It is good for a man
that he bear the yoke in his youth.



31 For the Lord will not cast off for ever:

32 But though he cause grief,
yet will he have compassion
according to the multitude of his mercies.

33 For he doth not afflict willingly
nor grieve the children of men.


34 To crush under his feet
all the prisoners of the earth,

35 To turn aside the right of a man
before the face of the most High
36 To subvert a man in his cause,
the Lord approveth not.


37 Who is he that saith,
and it cometh to pass,
when the Lord commandeth it not?

38 Out of the mouth of the most High
proceedeth not evil and good?

39 Wherefore doth a living man complain,
a man for the punishment of his sins?


40 Let us search and try our ways,
and turn again to the LORD.

41 Let us lift up our heart with our hands
unto God in the heavens.


44 Thou hast covered thyself with a cloud,
that our prayer should not pass through.

45 Thou hast made us
as the offscouring
and refuse in the midst of the people.


46 All our enemies
have opened their mouths against us.

47 Fear and a snare is come upon us,
desolation and destruction.

48 Mine eye runneth down with rivers of water
for the destruction of the daughter of my people.


49 Mine eye trickleth down,
and ceaseth not,
without any [nothing of] intermission,

50 Till the LORD look down,
and behold from heaven.

51 Mine eye affecteth mine heart
because of all the daughters of my city.


52 Mine enemies chased me sore [hunting they hunt me],
like a bird,
without cause.

53 They have cut off my life in the dungeon,
and cast a stone upon me.

54 Waters flowed over mine head;
then I said, I am cut off.


55 I called upon thy name, O LORD,
out of the low [lowermost] dungeon.

56 Thou hast heard my voice:
hide not thine ear
at my breathing,
at my cry.


60 Thou hast seen all their vengeance
and all their imaginations against me.


61 Thou hast heard their reproach,
and all their imaginations against me;

62 The lips of those that rose up against me,
and their device against me all the day.


64 Render unto them a recompence,
according to the work of their hands.

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