Daily Arts Web Nucleus


Discover the Arts! Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links

2017 March 24

Image 1: The Abduction of Rebecca (1846)
Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863)
Romanticism Style
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA
Image Credit: Web Gallery of Art


Image 2: Oxen Pulling a Cart (1885)
Giovanni Boldini (1842-1931)
Realism Style
Galleria dell'Arte Moderna, Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy
Image Credit: Web Gallery of Art


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no days will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     Explanation: Matters of personal rights, especially in regard to injury and death, are the focus of Exodus 21, as applied to all levels of society, particularly slaves. These regulations were given just after the giving of the Ten Commandments when the LORD called Moses to hear his laws and bring them to the people of Israel. The LORD told Moses that a Hebrew slave would be required to serve no more than six years and would go out free in the seventh year. If he came in single he would go out single; if he had a wife he could take her with him. But if the master gave him a wife, she and any children she bore in slavery would belong to the master. However a slave could make his slavery permanent if he loved his master, his wife, and his children and wanted to stay with them. In that case, the master would bore his ear through with an awl; and he would be the master's slave forever (1-6).
     If a man sold his daughter to be a slave, she could not go out as male slaves did. If she did not please her master she could be redeemed, but he could not sell her to a foreigner. If he purchased her for his son, he had to treat her as a daughter. If he took another wife, he could not diminish her rights to food, clothing, or marital relations. If he did not do these things for her, she could leave without paying redemption money (7-11).
     Verses 12-36 give some general rules for treating one another correctly, particularly in cases of death and injury, which are then applied, in part, to the treatment of slaves. The first of these are the regulations for murder. A murderer was to be put to death. However, if the death was accidental, the one who killed the other could flee to a city of refuge. If the killing was deliberate, there was no refuge, not even at God's altar (12-14). The death penalty also applied to anyone who struck his father or his mother (15).
     A manstealer also faced the death penalty (16). Anyone who cursed his father or his mother would be put to death (17). If someone injured another during a fight he had to pay for his lost time and have him thoroughly healed (18-19). When someone killed a slave, the slave was to be avenged; but if the slave survived he was not avenged (20-21).
     If a premature birth came from a pregnant woman being injured, a fine could be imposed by the husband, as he sees fit; but if harm comes, the penalty will be proportional to the injury -- life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, stripe for stripe (22-25). A slave could go free if he or she was stricken and lost their eye, or if they lost a tooth (26-27).
     If an ox gored a man or a woman to death the ox would be killed and eaten, but the owner would not liable unless the ox had been known to do this in the past, in which case the ox was to be stoned and the owner put to death. The owner may redeem his life if a ransom was imposed. These rules applied to an ox that gores a man's son or daughter. If it gored a slave, the owner of the ox must pay thirty shekels of silver to the slave's owner, and the ox must be stoned (28-32). If an ox or donkey fell into an uncovered pit the owner must make restitution, but he could keep the dead beast (33-34). If one ox kills another, the live ox must be sold and the money split, and the dead ox would be shared; but if it was prone to gore in the past, the owner must pay ox for ox and could keep the dead ox (35-36).
     [ Sermons: Dale R Davis. Various. ]
     [ Illustration: Today's images refer to various aspects of today's chapter: laws regarding slavery and laws regarding personal injury, including injury by animals. ]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Exodus 21: [10] 1 Corinthians 7:3; 1 Peter 3:7. [12] Genesis 9:6; Leviticus 24:17; Matthew 26:52; Revelation 13:10. [17] Exodus 20:12; Leviticus 20:9; Deuteronomy 5:16; Deuteronomy 27:16; Proverbs 30:17; Matthew 15:4; Mark 7:10. [24] Leviticus 24:20; Deuteronomy 19:21; Matthew 5:38. [28] Genesis 9:5. -- From the KJV Reference Bible ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Pentateuch Detailed Outline:

Genesis Detailed Outline:

Exodus Detailed Outline:

Exodus 21


1. Promised (Covenanted) Deliverance [cf., Ge 15:16] - (Ex 1:1 - Ex 18:27)

{Pentateuch Outline: Section 13. Generations of Levi - Ex 6:14 - Nu 2:34) - 1446 - 1445 B.C. Egypt & Sinai}

2. Promised (Covenanted) Instruction (Ex 19:1 - Nu 2:34) - 1446 - 1445 B.C. Sinai, which,

in Exodus = Instruction for the People in General (or "THE VISITS") (Ex 19:1 - Ex 40:38) - 1446 - 1445 B.C. Sinai

     1 Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them. 2 If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. 3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married [lord of a woman], then his wife shall go out with him. 4 If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself. 5 And if the servant shall plainly say [saying he shall say], I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free: 6 Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and serve him for ever.
     7 And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do. 8 If she please not [is evil in the eyes of] her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her. 9 And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters. 10 If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish. 11 And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.
     12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death [to be put to death he shall be put to death]. 13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee. 14 But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die.
     15 And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death [to be put to death he shall be put to death].
     16 And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall be surely put to death [to be put to death he shall be put to death].
     17 And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death [to be put to death he shall be put to death].
     18 And if men strive together, and one smite another with a stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed: 19 If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed [to make healed he shall make healed].
     20 And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished [to be avenged he shall be avenged]. 21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.
     22 If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished [being penalized he shall be penalized], according as the woman's husband [lord] will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. 23 And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.
     26 And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake. 27 And if he smite out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake.
     28 If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned [to be stoned it shall be stoned], and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit. 29 But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past [from yesterday and three days], and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death. 30 If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him. 31 Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him. 32 If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.
     33 And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein; 34 The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.
     35 And if one man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox also they shall divide. 36 Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past [from yesterday and three days], and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay [restoring he shall restore] ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own.

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