Daily Arts Web Nucleus


Discover the Arts! Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links

2018 April 24

Portrait of Procurator Jacopo Soranzo (c. 1550)
Tintoretto (1518-1594)
Renaissance Style
Castello Sforzesco, Milan, Italy
Image Source: Web Gallery of Art

     [ Illustration: Today's painting shows a man of "gravity, dignity, and integrity" (to quote from the painting's title link ). As Job asserts of himself, and as the whole rest of the book of Job shows, Job exhibited these qualities, even though his outward appearance seemed to show otherwise, particularly in respect to the first two qualities. ]


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     Explanation: Job 31 contains the last part of Job's final answer to his friends. In this chapter Job begins with a proclamation of his innocence, proceeds with examples of the kinds of sins which would merit the disasters he had suffered, and concludes with a plea to stand before God with his accusers and be judged. In chapters 38-42, after the speech of Elihu (32-37), Job gets his wish.
     Job's first comment is about the integrity of his heart: "I made a covenant with my eyes; why then should I think upon a maid?" He was asserting that his inward behavior was as pure as his outward behavior. Adam Clark interprets the word "maid" or "virgin" (Heb., bethulah) as "idol," but this does not seem to fit the general course of Job's argument; and it is a rare interpretation of the word. Nevertheless, in either interpretation, the underlying point is the same: Job had a pure heart (1).
     Job then complains that he has not received his proper reward from God for his purity of heart (2).
     The destruction and the strange punishment which he received should be for the wicked and the workers of iniquity (3).
     His fate is out of accord with God's knowledge of him, because God sees his ways in such minute detail that he even counts Job's steps (4).
     Having asserted his inward integrity, Job then turns to a more detailed assertion of his innocence. In the remainder of the chapter he uses a series of "if ... then" propositions to describe the sins which merit the things which he suffered and to call down judgment upon himself if he did them. These are bold challenges and serve to fix in the mind of the hearer and the reader a sense of the deep sense of integrity which Job felt about his inner and outer conduct. In the first of these statements he alludes to verse four where he asserts that God sees his ways and counts his steps; and, accordingly, he said that if he walked in vanity or in deceit that God should weigh him in a balance and know his integrity. Continuing this image, he says that if his step turned out to the way, or if he walked in the lust of his eyes, or if his hands were unclean, "Then let me sow, and let another eat; yea, let my offspring be rooted out" (5-8).
     Then, referring to his statement in the first verse, he says that if his heart had been deceived by a woman, or if he had committed adultery, then let his wife grind (i.e., grind grain) for another; and let her be given to others, because this is a heinous crime worthy of punishment by the judges; and it is a destructive force which would destroy everything which he had (9-12).
     If he despised the cause of his servants when they contended with him, he would have been helpless and unable to answer when God rose up against him, because God made all of them -- Job and his servants -- and they were therefore equal (13-15).
     If, says Job, he withheld help from the poor, the widow, the hungry, the fatherless, the naked, or the fatherless, then, let his arm (which he should have used to help them) fall off at the shoulder blade and be broken from the bone. He would deserve destruction and unendurable terror from God (16-23).
     If Job made gold and wealth his hope and his confidence, or if he worshiped the sun or the moon, or if his heart was enticed to perform acts of idolatrous devotion such as kissing his hand to pass the kiss on to the idol or to receive surrogate affection from the idol which he touched, then this would be worthy to be punished by the judge, because he would have denied God (24-28).
     If he rejoiced when his enemy was destroyed or overcome with evil, or if he wished a curse upon him, or if he withheld food from those who lived in his home, or if he let travelers lodge in the street without opening his doors to them, or if he covered his sin as Adam did, or if he let the fear of a multitude stop him from doing the right thing, then (by implication) he should punished for these things. Job does not explicitly state this conclusion; rather, for the sake of emphasis, he breaks off his train of thought and asks that God, the Almighty, would hear him and answer him. He wished that his adversaries had written their accusations in a book which he could take to God and show him. He wished that he could declare the number of his steps (alluding to verse 4 which says that God counts all of his steps). He would, in other words, state the obvious to God and recount in detail his righteous thoughts and deeds. His confidence is such that he felt he could approach God as a prince. And Job closes with a final "if ... then" proposition: if he has misused his land in a greedy or fraudulent manner so that owners (who presumably owed him something for its use) did not get their fair share or even lost their life (perhaps through malnourishment or starvation), then "Let thistles grow instead of wheat, and cockle instead of barley" (29-40).

     [ Sermons: Joseph Pipa. Various. ]

Bile Chronologies -- Genesis to Revelation

[Traditional Patriarchal Chronology. Judges Period Chronology 1. Judges Period Chronology 2. Kings of Judah and Israel #1. Kings of Judah and Israel #2].

[Post Exile Chronology 1. Post Exile Chronology 2. Post Exile Chronology 3.]

[Prophets Chronology 1. Prophets Chronology 2. Prophets Chronology 3. Prophets Chronology 4.]

[Intertestamental Period Chronology 1. Intertestamental Period Chronology 2. Intertestamental Period Chronology 3.
Intertestamental Period Chronology 4. Intertestamental Period Chronology 5.]

[New Testament Chronology 1. New Testament Chronology 2. New Testament Chronology 3. New Testament Chronology 4. New Testament Chronology 5.]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Job 31: Job 25; Job 26; Job 27; Job 28; Job 29; Job 30 ].
[1] Matthew 5:28.
[2] Genesis 39:9.
[4] Psalm 7:9; Psalm 44:21; Jeremiah 17:10; Jeremiah 20:12; Acts 25:11.
[7] Acts 9:2.
[13] Job 22:8.
[15] Job 22:6-7; Job 22:9.
[24] Job 22:23-24.
[28] Deuteronomy 17:2-7.
[31] Job 19:22.
[32] Genesis 19:2-3; Judges 19:20-21.
[35] Job 29:18.
[37] Job 5:2; Job 11:2-3; Job 11:12; Job 11:14; Job 15:4-5; Job 15:13; Job 15:16; Job 15:34; Job 18:5; Job 18:14; Job 20:5; Job 31:15; Job 31:19; Job 22:5; Job 22:9; Job 22:13; Job 22:17.
[38] Job 1:1.
     -- From Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Job Detailed Outline

The Book of Job


2085 B.C., Uz

The wisdom and blessing of exercising faith during undeserved suffering

Job 31

Map 1: Bible Nations | Map 2: Empire of David and Solomon Map 3: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel | Post Exile Chronology.

2. The Debate About Job's Affliction (Job 2:11 - Job 37:24)

c. Round 3 (Job 22:1 - Job 31:40)

1). Eliphaz Replies to Job (Job 22:1 - Job 22:30)
(You have done evil to others; return to God.)

2). Job Replies to Eliphaz (Job 23:1 - Job 24:6 )
(If I could come before God I could persuade him of my innocence.
Some of those who know God perish as do some of the wicked.)

3). Bildad Replies to Job (Job 25:1 - Job 25:6 )
(How can anyone be righteous?)

4). Job Replies to Bildad (Job 26:1 - Job 31:40)
(You have been of no help.
God has denied me justice.
May my enemies be like the wicked who perish suddenly.
Man does not understand wisdom.
I long for my past blessings, but mockers surround me.
I have obeyed God.)

     1 I made a covenant with mine eyes; why then should I think upon a maid? 2 For what portion of God is there from above? and what inheritance of the Almighty from on high? 3 Is not destruction to the wicked? and a strange punishment to the workers of iniquity? 4 Doth not he see my ways, and count all my steps?
     5 If I have walked with vanity, or if my foot hath hasted to deceit; 6 Let me be weighed in an even balance, that God may know mine integrity. 7 If my step hath turned out of the way, and mine heart walked after mine eyes, and if any blot hath cleaved to mine hands; 8 Then let me sow, and let another eat; yea, let my offspring be rooted out.
     9 If mine heart have been deceived by a woman, or if I have laid wait at my neighbour's door; 10 Then let my wife grind unto another, and let others bow down upon her. 11 For this is an heinous crime; yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges. 12 For it is a fire that consumeth to destruction, and would root out all mine increase.
     13 If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me; 14 What then shall I do when God riseth up? and when he visiteth, what shall I answer him? 15 Did not he that made me in the womb make him? and did not one fashion us in the womb?
     16 If I have withheld the poor from their desire, or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail; 17 Or have eaten my morsel myself alone, and the fatherless hath not eaten thereof; 18 (For from my youth he was bought up with me, as with a father, and I have guided her from my mother's womb;) 19 If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, or any poor without coverering; 20 If his loins have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep; 21 If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate: 22 Then let mine arm fall from my shoulder blade, and mine arm be broken from the bone. 23 For destruction from God was a terror to me, and by reason of his highness I could not endure [I prevail not].
     24 If I have made gold my hope, or have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence; 25 If I rejoiced because my wealth was great, and because mine hand had gotten much; 26 If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness; 27 And my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand: 28 This also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge: for denied the God that is above.
     29 If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me, or lifted up myself when evil found him: 30 Neither have I suffered my mouth to sin by wishing a curse to his soul. 31 If the men of my tabernacle said not, Oh that we had of his flesh! we cannot be satisfied. 32 The stranger did not lodge in the street: but I opened my doors to the traveller. 33 If I covered my transgressions as Adam, by hiding mine iniquity in my bosom: 34 Did I fear a great multitude, or did the contempt of families terrify me, that I kept silence, and went not out of the door? 35 Oh that one would hear me! behold, my desire is, that the Almighty would answer me, and that mine adversary had written a book. 36 Surely I would take it upon my shoulder, and bind it as a crown to me. 37 I would declare unto him the number of my steps; as a prince would I go near unto him. 38 If my land cry against me, or that the furrows likewise thereof complain; 39 If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, or have caused the owners thereof to lose their life: 40 Let thistles grow instead of wheat, and cockle instead of barley. The words of Job are ended.

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