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2019 March 22
Lamentations 2

The Entombment of Atala (1808)
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson (1767-1824)
Romantic Style
Musee du Louvre, Paris, France
Image Source: Web Gallery of Art

     [ Illustration: Today's painting illustrates the aspect of grief called "bargaining," which is an attempt to cling to the person or to the thing lost. ]


[ I will again be working through the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation. I will be adding links, resources, images, and the like, upgrading the former work-through which began with the 2013-10-12 posting which can be found, along with the full Genesis to Revelation postings, in the Archive Page. Postings will be at midnight Eastern Time, as I am able. However, no chapters will be skipped, even though a posting may be late. And all postings will be housed in the Archive Page. ]

     The Book of Lamentations Overview: Lamentations is a series of 5 poems lamenting the final fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians in about 586 B.C. The first four chapters are acrostic poems. The fifth chapter is a non-acrostic poem. Each chapter has 22 verses except for chapter 3 which has 66 verses, consisting of 22 triplet acrostics. The first chapter follows the normal alphabetic order; but chapters 2-4 have a reversal of letter number 16 (called "Ayin") with number 17 ( called "Pe") -- (i.e., the order is Pe, Ayin in chapters 2, 3, and 4). Tradition holds that Jeremiah is the author, and the content of the book is consistent with Jeremiah's style in the Book of Jeremiah - particularly his use of poetry, laments, and variations of speakers (where he speaks, the people speak, and the LORD speaks, often without formal introduction - discernible by context - which is a device used by other prophets and poets in Scripture). For purposes of illustration, I've analyzed the chapters for major components of the mourning process in accord with "The Five Stages of Grief," as well as for content.
     NOTE: David Dorsey has analyzed Lamentations chiastically. (A chiastic structure is one in which elements in the first part repeat in reverse order in the second part). Key divisions are indicated by changes in speakers. This pattern is also noted below in a modified form in my analysis. Dorsey's analysis is described in The Literary Structure of the Old Testament, David A. Dorsey, 1999, pp. 246-252.

     Explanation: Bargaining. In Lamentations 2, (as in chapter one) the opening word is the exclamation, "eyk," "how!?" -- the word of denial -- how can these things be!? The first 12 verses deal mainly with this astonished grief. From 13 to 22, we see elements of bargaining (an attempt to cling to some modicum of hope, or to some last moment of comfort), particularly in verse 19, which advises the afflicted to "lift up your hands toward him for the life of your young children" -- expressing the hope that the LORD might be moved by the suffering of the young and innocent to relent. This attempt to bargain is illustrated above by the young man clinging to his beloved till the last moment -- an attempt to cling to a last moment of comfort -- in this case, the comfort of mere touch. The chapter opens with a cry of distress at how the LORD has covered Zion with a cloud of his anger, destroyed her beauty, and forgot her (1).
     He destroyed her habitations, ruined her strong holds, and polluted the kingdom and the princes (2).
     He cut them off with fierce, fiery anger and slew all who were pleasant to the eye; he was their enemy who swallowed and destroyed them; he destroyed his tabernacle (the Temple) and its worship services and altar (3-7).
     He destroyed her walls and gates, exiled her princes, and would not speak to her prophets; the elders were stunned to silence (8-10).
     Jeremiah wept himself dry and was weak with distress because the children swooned in the streets, and begged for food, and died upon their mothers' bosoms (11-12).
     Considering these things, Jeremiah attempts to "bargain" for comfort for Zion, though her ruin is vast (13).
     He first says that she has been wronged by her prophets who said vain, foolish, and false things to her (14).
     He complains that those who pass by marvel at the destruction of her beauty and say that this was the day they looked for (15-16).
     He states that the LORD withdrew from her and let her enemies triumph (17).
     For these reasons, the people plead with copious tears for restoration to favor; and Jeremiah encourages them to cry out to the Lord and plead for their children, and he pleads with the LORD to consider the horror of women eating their own children, of priests and prophets slain in the sanctuary, of the dead lying in the streets, of the terrors the LORD sent to consume them, and of the children slain by the enemy (18-22).

     [ Sermons: Alistair Begg. Poh Boon Sing. C H Spurgeon. Various. ]

Bible Chronologies -- Genesis to Revelation

[Traditional Patriarchal Chronology. Judges Period Chronology 1. Judges Period Chronology 2. Kings of Judah and Israel #1. Kings of Judah and Israel #2].

[Post Exile Chronology 1. Post Exile Chronology 2. Post Exile Chronology 3.]

[Prophets Chronology 1. Prophets Chronology 2. Prophets Chronology 3. Prophets Chronology 4.]

[Intertestamental Period Chronology 1. Intertestamental Period Chronology 2. Intertestamental Period Chronology 3.
Intertestamental Period Chronology 4. Intertestamental Period Chronology 5.]

[New Testament Chronology 1. New Testament Chronology 2. New Testament Chronology 3. New Testament Chronology 4. New Testament Chronology 5.]


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Lamentations 2: Lamentations 1. Lamentations 2. Lamentations 3. Lamentations 4. Lamentations 5. ]
[1] Lamentations 1:1; Lamentations 4:1; Lamentations 3:43-44; Isaiah 64:11; 2 Samuel 1:19; 1 Chronicles 28:2; Psalm 99:5.
[2] Lamentations 1:17, 21; Lamentations 3:43; Psalm 89:39.
[3] 1 Samuel 2:1; Psalm 92:10; Psalm 112:9.
[4] Lamentations 3:3, 12-13.
[5] Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 35:10.
[6] Lamentations 1:4; Jeremiah 33:21.
[7] Psalm 89:38.
[8] 2 Kings 21:13; Isaiah 34:11; Amos 7:7; Habakkuk 2:11; Luke 19:40.
[9] Jeremiah 39:2, 8.
[10] Lamentations 4:5, 16; Lamentations 5:12-14.
[11] Lamentations 1:16; Lamentations 3:48-51; Proverbs 7:23.
[12] Jeremiah 14:17.
[13] Jeremiah 30:12-15; Jeremiah 8:22.
[14] Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 5:13; Jeremiah 6:13; Jeremiah 8:10; Jeremiah 14:14; Jeremiah 28:9; Jeremiah 23:33.
[15] Lamentations 1:8; Psalm 48:2; Psalm 50:2; Ezekiel 27:3.
[16] Lamentations 3:46.
[17] Lamentations 1:5; 2 Samuel 24:14.
[18] Lamentations 1:2, 16; Isaiah 14:31.
[19] Lamentations 4:1-9.
[20] Leviticus 26:26; Deuteronomy 28:57; Jeremiah 19:9; 2 Kings 6:28; Ezekiel 4:16-17; Ezekiel 5:16.
[21] Lamentations 3:43; Deuteronomy 28:49-50.
[22] Lamentations 1:15; Jeremiah 6:25; Jeremiah 20:3; Jeremiah 20:10.
     -- From Treasury of Scripture Knowledge & Others ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). PROVERBS: Book of Proverbs. ECCLESIASTES: Book of Ecclesiastes Dramatized. SONG OF SOLOMON: Song of Solomon Dramatized. ISAIAH: Isaiah Dramatized. JEREMIAH: Jeremiah Dramatized. LAMENTATIONS: Lamentations Dramatized. VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible

Lamentations Detailed Outline


Lamentations 2

Map 1: Bible Nations | Map 2: Empire of David and Solomon Map 3: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel | Post Exile Chronology.

2. Lamentation 2: The Wrath of God (Lam 2:1 - Lam 2:22) - 586 B.C. Israel

A. The LORD's Anger (2:1-3)


1 How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in his anger,
[How he darkens in his anger, my Lord, {this} the daughter of Zion,]
and cast down from heaven unto the earth the beauty of Israel,
and remembered not his footstool [the stool of his feet] in the day of his anger!



B. Devastation Of The City (2:4-9)


4 He hath bent his bow like an enemy:
he stood with his right hand as an adversary,
and slew all that were pleasant to the eye in the tabernacle of the daughter of Zion:
he poured out his fury like fire.




7 The Lord hath cast off his altar,
he hath abhorred his sanctuary,
he hath given up into the hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces;
they have made a noise in the house of the LORD,
as in the day of a solemn feast.


8 The LORD hath purposed to destroy the wall of the daughter of Zion:
he hath stretched out a line,
he hath not withdrawn his hand from destroying:
therefore he made the rampart and the wall to lament;
they languished together.


9 Her gates are sunk into the ground;
he hath destroyed and broken her bars:
her king and her princes are among the Gentiles:
the law is no more;
her prophets also find no vision from the LORD.

C. Devastation Of The Citizens (2:10-13)



11 Mine eyes do fail with tears,
my bowels are troubled,
my liver is poured upon the earth,
for the destruction of the daughter of my people;
because the children and the sucklings swoon in the streets of the city.


12 They say to their mothers,
Where is corn and wine?
when they swooned as the wounded in the streets of the city,
when their soul was poured out into their mothers' bosom.


D. Misled By False Visions (2:14)


14 Thy prophets have seen vain and foolish things for thee:
and they have not discovered [stripped off] thine iniquity,
to turn away thy captiviy;
but have seen for thee false burdens and causes of banishment.

E. Scoffing (2:15-16)


15 All that pass by [crossing on the road] clap their hands at thee;
they hiss and wag their head at the daughter of Jerusalem,
saying, Is this the city that men call The perfection of beauty,
The joy of the whole earth?


F. No Pity From The LORD (2:17)


17 The LORD hath done that which he had devised;
he hath fulfilled his word that he had commanded in the days of old:
he hath thrown down,
and hath not pitied:
and he hath caused thine enemy to rejoice over thee,
he hath set up the horn of thine adversaries.

G. Tears (2:18-19)


18 Their heart cried unto the Lord,
O wall of the daughter of Zion,
let tears run down like a river day and night:
give thyself no rest;
let not the apple of thine eye cease.


19 Arise,
cry out in the night: in the beginning of the watches
pour out thine heart like water
before the face of the Lord:
lift up thy hands toward him for the life of thy young children,
that faint for hunger in the top of every street.

H. Unmerciful Death For All (2:20-21)


20 Behold, O LORD,
and consider to whom thou hast done this.
Shall the women eat their fruit,
and children of a span long?
shall the priest and the prophet be slain in the sanctuary of the Lord?


21 The young and the old lie on the ground in the streets:
my virgins and my young men are fallen by the sword;
thou hast slain them in the day of thine anger;
thou hast killed,
and not pitied.

I. Terrors On Every Side (2:22)


22 Thou hast called as in a solemn day my terrors round about,
so that in the day of the LORD'S anger none escaped [were delivered] nor remained:
those that I have swaddled and bought up hath mine enemy consumed.

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