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Section 2: Exploration


Structural Outlines of all 66 Books of the Bible
Plus Supplemental Material
Including an Outline of Scripture and Gospel Harmonies

Full Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration
of all 1,189 Chapters of the Bible
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as of --- 1/4/2021

as of --- 3/28/2021 -- RACISM -- < Click To Navigate.

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.
Part 1 -- Creation to Abraham




                                                                                                                                                      |   THE GOSPEL     |

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.
Part 1 -- Creation to Abraham

Section 1: Contributors
Section 2: Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration
     Sub-Section 1: Explanation & Outline
     Sub-Section 2: Resources
     Sub-Section 3: Scripture Chapter with Linguistic Dictionary and Encyclopedia Links


I have relaunched DAWN as of January 4, 2021.
This is the first installment of material related to Daniel 11.
* This first section contains a blend of Biblical, scientific, archaeological, and other historical material from Creation to Abraham.
I will add two other sizeable installments during the month of January 2021, Lord willing.
These will contain relevant historical parallels from Abraham to the present day.
In my research, I have found rich resources of information not readily available elsewhere.
I am taking the time necessary to properly arrange it, explain it, and illustrate it.
* When I have finished the Daniel installments, I will again go chapter-by-chapter through the rest of Scripture.

As always, please note that ...
I have previously posted DAWN pages on every chapter of the Bible.
The former workthrough can be found in the archive beginning with the 2013-10-12 posting.
The current, expanded, and ongoing workthrough can be found in the archive beginning with the 2017-01-13 posting.
(See the following link for the Complete Archive Page)

I am also preparing a complete Scripture index of all 2,700 pages of DAWN material for posting some time in 2021.
This will greatly enhance the findability and the usefulness of the Biblical material in DAWN.

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.
Part 1 -- Creation to Abraham


SECTION 1: Contributors

The Broad Focus on Christ and Culture in Poems, Essays, Art, & Music
From the Following Contributors

Diagrammatic T-O map (Modified) -- (early 13th century)
In the original drawing (see link above) the world is portrayed as a circle
divided by a 'T' shape into three continents, Asia, Europe, and Africa.
At the base of the circle is Gades (Cadiz)
Early 13th Century Cartographer (early 13th Century)
Image added to a 13th century edition of
Isidore of Seville's Etymologies (First Edition published c., AD 600-625), British Library
Image Source: Wikimedia


Please explore the following twenty-eight links from these contributors.
These are reflections on Scripture and Culture from the Ad Lib Christian Arts family and fellowship of writers, artists, and musicians.
Nine of these are new for April 2020 and will be periodically updated:

The Spirituality of the Church (Christianity Beyond Politics and Culture), by Webmaster E. Scott Souza

The Lone Ranger and Toronto (An Essay on Plague and Disaster), by Webmaster E. Scott Souza

Judith Deem Dupree: Holy Week Lenten Reflections

Derrel Emmerson: This Bread, This Cup. Resurrection Day!

Judith Deem Dupree: Poet and Essayist Looks Deeply into Life. / Plus. Plus.

Richard Terrell's NEW MATERIAL, Copyright June 2021:
(1). Christ's Passion; (2). Stations of the Cross; (3). Gethsemane (Maundy Thursday Visuals);
(4). Was George Carlin Right About God?; (5). A Prayer for Truckers; (6). The Robe (7). Are Values Real? [New, June 2021]

Archive Page

The Compact Illuminated Bible

The Westminster Confession Illustrated - Links

Other Ad Lib Christian Arts Material from the Founder and Others

Links to a Wide Variety of Outside Resources


The Chapter by Chapter Focus on Scripture Through Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration

Section 1: Contributors; Section 2: Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration
Sub-Section 1: Explanation & Outline; Sub-Section 2: Resources; Sub-Section 3: Scripture Chapter with Linguistic Dictionary and Encyclopedia Links

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.


Discover the Arts! Each day a different image from the Literary, Performing, or Visual Arts representing a portion of Scripture
plus an explanation with links

2019 May 23
Daniel 11

At Luxor, Thebes, Upper Egypt
Art by David Roberts (1796-1864), and Lithography by Louis Haghe (1806-1885)
Contained in the Books The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt and Nubia (1842-1846), and Egypt and Nubia (1846-1849)
Image Source: OldBookArt.com

[ Illustration: Today's image depicts ruins in Egypt. Today's chapter predicts ruin in Egypt and other nations because of their sin. ]


Section 1: Contributors; Section 2: Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration
Sub-Section 1: Explanation & Outline; Sub-Section 2: Resources; Sub-Section 3: Scripture Chapter with Linguistic Dictionary and Encyclopedia Links

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.

     Explanation: In Daniel 11, "the man clothed in linen" from the previous chapter (10:5) begins his revelation to Daniel, and it continues into the next chapter, which is the end of the book. He gives revelation this in plain statements, not in visions. The chapter expands upon chapter 8 and discloses the following: "Daniel 11:1, The overthrow of Persia by the king of Grecia [330 B.C.]; Daniel 11:5, Leagues and conflicts between the kings of the south [Egypt and the Saracens, or Arabs] and of the north [Syria and possibly the Ottoman Empire]; Daniel 11:30, The invasion and tyranny of the Romans" (The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge). Depicted above are ruins at Luxor (Thebes), Egypt - - a result of successive conquests, such as would come from the wars described below. Albert Barnes, in his commentary quoted below, gives a more detailed account of this chapter:
     "The chapter before us embraces the following definitely marked periods:
     I. The succession of kings in Persia to the time of a mighty king who should arouse all the strength of his kingdom to make war on Greece - referring doubtless to Xerxes [480 B.C.], Daniel 11:1-2. Of those kings in Persia there would be three - three so prominent as to deserve notice in the rapid glance at future events - Cambyses, Smerdis, and Darius Hystaspis.
     II. After this succession of kings, one would stand up or appear who would be characterized as ruling "with great dominion," and "according to his will," Daniel 11:3. The dominion evidently would pass into his hand, and he would be distinguished from all that went before him. There can be no doubt, from the connection, and from what is said in Daniel 11:4, that the reference here is to Alexander the Great.
     III. The state of the empire after the death of this mighty king, Daniel 11:4. His kingdom would be broken, and would be divided into four parts - referring doubtless to the division of the empire of Alexander after his death [323 B.C.].
     IV. The history then proceeds to notice the events that would pertain to two of these portions of the empire - the conflicts between the king of the south, and the king of the north - or between Egypt and Syria, Daniel 11:5-19. This portion of the history embraces, in detail, an account of the policy, the negotiations, and the wars of Antiochus the Great, until the time of his death. These kingdoms are particularly referred to, probably because their conflicts would affect the holy land, and pertain ultimately to the history of religion, and its establishment and triumph in the world. In the notice of these two sovereignties, there is considerable detail - so much so that the principal events could have been readily anticipated by those who were in possession of the writings of Daniel. The destiny of the other two portions of the empire of Alexander did not particularly affect the history of religion, or pertain to the holy land, and therefore they are not introduced. In a particular manner, the history of Antiochus the Great [222-187 B.C.] is traced with great minuteness in this portion of the prophecy, because his doings had a special bearing on the Jewish nation, and were connected with the progress of religion. The commentary on this portion of the chapter will show that the leading events are traced as accurately as would be a summary of the history made out after the transactions had occurred.
     V. A brief reference to the successor of Antiochus the Great, Seleucus IV, Daniel 11:20. As he occupied the throne, however, but for a short period, and as his doings did not particularly affect the condition of the Hebrew people, or the interests of religion, and his reign was, in every respect, unimportant, it is passed over with only a slight notice.
     VI. The life and acts of Antiochus Epiphanes [175-164 B.C.], Dan. 11:21-45. There can be no doubt that this portion of the chapter refers to Antiochus, and it contains a full detail of his character and of his doings. The account here, though without naming him, is just such as would have been given by one who should have written after the events had occurred, and there is no more difficulty in applying the description in this chapter to him now than there would have been in such a historical narrative. The revelation is made, evidently, to prepare the Jewish people for these fearful events, and these heavy trials, in their history; and also to assure them that more glorious results would follow, and that deliverance would succeed these calamities. In the troubles which Antiochus would bring upon the Hebrew people, it was important that they should have before them a record containing the great outlines of what would occur, and the assurance of ultimate triumph - just as it is important for us now in the trials which we have reason to anticipate in this life, to have before us in the Bible the permanent record that we shall yet find deliverance. In the twelfth chapter, therefore, the angel directs the mind onward to brighter times, and assures Daniel that there would be a day of rejoicing."

The Angel's Introduction (Concluded) -- (10:19 - 11:1):
     The man (angel) assured Daniel that he was greatly beloved, told him to fear not, pronounced peace upon him, and told him to be strong. This strengthened Daniel, and he told the man to speak (19).
     The man said that he would return to fight with the prince of Persia and the prince of Greece, but he would show Daniel what was noted in the scripture of truth. And no one held with him but Michael, Daniel (and Israel's) prince (20-21).
     He concluded his introduction by telling Daniel that, as Michael would help him, so he had helped Darius in the first year of his reign (11:1).
     A NOTE CONCERNING THE PERSONS IN VERSE 11:1. "And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him" (ESV).
          {1}. It is quite plausible that Darius the Mede is Gubaru, and he was made an administrator or sub-king by Cyrus the Great -- (Cyrus II, the Great, 559-530 B.C.) who conquered Babylon (539 B.C.) and Belshazzar (c. 553-539 B.C.) who, like his successor Darius the Mede (c. 539-530 B.C.), was also a sub-king.
          {2}. The "man" (angel) who spoke to Daniel in chapters 10-12 is unnamed, but some think he is the pre-incarnate Christ, others that he is Gabriel, and still others that he is simply an angel, probably one of high rank. (For a fuller discussion of this issue, the reader should consult the commentaries on Daniel 10 and Daniel 11).

Alternate Chapter Outline: Chapter 11 does not have a chiastic * structure. However, various authors see a chiastic structure in the book of Daniel taken as a whole. Below, I have presented the book outline by David A. Dorsey, slightly modified, from his book The Literary Structure of the Old Testament (p. 260).
      * A chiastic structure is a literary form of parallelism in which a succession of ideas leads up to an emphatic central point then repeats in reverse order.

Hebrew Introduction: Daniel and his three friends in king's training (1).
Aramaic Section (2-7).
  a.  Vision of the four kingdoms in a human image (2).
       b.  Martyr Story: God saves Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace (3).
            c.  Nebuchadnezzar's pride and Yahweh's sovereignty (4).
            c.  Belshazzar's pride and Yahweh's sovereignty (5).
       b'. Martyr Story: God saves Daniel in the lion's den (6).
  a'.  Vision of the four kingdoms in images of beasts (7).
Hebrew Section (8-12).
  a. Vision of two kingdoms: Persia and Greece; metaphor of beasts (8).
       b.  Vision of the seventy "sevens" (9).
  a'. Vision of two kingdoms: Persia and Greece; metaphor of a man  (10-12).


Section 1: Contributors; Section 2: Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration
Sub-Section 1: Explanation & Outline; Sub-Section 2: Resources; Sub-Section 3: Scripture Chapter with Linguistic Dictionary and Encyclopedia Links

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.


PLEASE NOTE: Use the resources on this and other sites thoughtfully, particularly the commentaries and encyclopedias. I have attempted to list conservative, scholarly resources. However, some providers use liberal or liberal-influenced commentaries such as the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (in Bible Hub). Such commentaries are undoubtedly included by the provider for the wealth of useful information and comments which they provide. By consulting several commentaries, it should be fairly easy to sort out the wheat from the chaff. If, however, you would like personal assistance, write to me at AD LIB ARTS EMAIL.

     [ Sermons: J. Ligon Duncan III. William Still. G. I. Williamson. Various. ]

Bible Chronologies -- Genesis to Revelation

[Traditional Patriarchal Chronology. Judges Period Chronology 1. Judges Period Chronology 2. Kings of Judah and Israel #1. Kings of Judah and Israel #2].

[Post Exile Chronology 1. Post Exile Chronology 2. Post Exile Chronology 3.]

[Prophets Chronology 1. Prophets Chronology 2. Prophets Chronology 3. Prophets Chronology 4.]

[Intertestamental Period Chronology 1. Intertestamental Period Chronology 2. Intertestamental Period Chronology 3.
Intertestamental Period Chronology 4. Intertestamental Period Chronology 5.]

[New Testament Chronology 1. New Testament Chronology 2. New Testament Chronology 3. New Testament Chronology 4. New Testament Chronology 5.]

          [ THEMATICALLY AND CHRONOLOGICALLY RELATED SCRIPTURES: Daniel 11: Daniel 7. Daniel 8. Daniel 9. Daniel 10. Daniel 11. Daniel 12. ]
[1] Daniel 5:31; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 10:18; Acts 14:22.
[2] Daniel 8:26; Daniel 10:1; Daniel 10:21; Amos 3:7; Ezra 4:5-6; Daniel 7:5; Daniel 8:4.
[3] Daniel 7:6; Daniel 8:5-8, 21; Daniel 8:4-14.
[4] Psalm 37:35-36; Psalm 73:17-20; Daniel 7:6-8; Daniel 8:8, 22.
[5] Daniel 11:8; Daniel 8:7-9; Daniel 8:22-23.
[6] Daniel 2:43; Daniel 10:14; Ezekiel 30:21; Zechariah 11:16.
[7] Daniel 11:8; Daniel 11:20-21; Daniel 11:38.
[8] Exodus 12:12; Numbers 33:4; Jeremiah 43:12-13; Jeremiah 46:25.
[9-10] Daniel 9:26; Isaiah 8:8; Jeremiah 47:2.
[11] Daniel 8:7.
[12] Daniel 8:25; Proverbs 16:18.
[13] Daniel 12:7.
[14] Acts 4:25-28; Revelation 17:17.
[15]Daniel 8:7; Proverbs 21:30-31.
[16] Daniel 8:4; Daniel 8:9.
[17] Daniel 11:6; Proverbs 19:21.
[18-19] Psalm 27:2; Psalm 37:36; Jeremiah 46:6; Ezekiel 26:21; Job 20:8.
[20] 2 Kings 23:35; Deuteronomy 15:2-3.
[21] Daniel 7:8; Daniel 8:9; Daniel 8:23-25; Psalm 55:21.
[22] Isaiah 8:7-8; Daniel 8:10-11; Daniel 8:25; Daniel 9:26.
[23] Daniel 8:25; Psalm 52:2.
[24] Proverbs 17:8; Proverbs 19:6.
[25] Daniel 8:4.
[26] Psalm 41:9; Micah 7:5-6.
[27] Psalm 12:2; Jeremiah 9:3-5.
[28] Daniel 8:24.
[29] Daniel 8:23.
[30] Numbers 24:24; Daniel 7:25.
[31] Daniel 8:11-13; Daniel 8:24-26; Daniel 9:27; Daniel 12:11; Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14; Luke 21:20.
[32] Proverbs 26:28; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12; Revelation 12:7-11.
[33] Daniel 12:3-4, 10; Matthew 24:9; Hebrews 11:34; Revelation 13:7-10.
[34] Romans 16:18; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; Revelation 13:1-4.
[35] Daniel 8:10; Daniel 12:10; Revelation 2:10.
[36] Daniel 8:11; Daniel 8:24-25; Isaiah 14:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:4.
[37] 1 Timothy 4:3; Isaiah 14:13.
[38] 1 Timothy 4:1; Revelation 13:12-17.
[39] 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12; 1 Timothy 4:1-3; Revelation 18:9-13; Revelation 13:4; Revelation 13:16-17.
[40] Ezekiel 38:14-18; Revelation 16:12.
[41] Jeremiah 48:47; Jeremiah 49:6.
[42] Ezekiel 29:14; Zechariah 10:10-11.
[43] Jeremiah 46:9-10; Ezekiel 38:5.
[44] Ezekiel 38:9-12; Revelation 16:12; Revelation 17:13; Revelation 19:19-21.
[45] Joel 2:20; Daniel 7:26; Daniel 8:25; Ezekiel 38:22-23; 2 Thessalonians 2:8.
     -- From Treasury of Scripture Knowledge & Others ]

          [ CHRONOLOGY: GENERAL. Patriarchs (Traditional). Judges # 1. Judges # 2. Kings # 1. Kings # 2. Prophets # 1. Prophets # 2. NT # 1. NT # 2. NT # 3. ]

          [ MAPS: Maps # 1. Maps # 2. Maps # 3. Maps # 4. Maps # 5. ]

          [ COMMENTARIES, ETC: GENERAL: Bible Study Tools; Bible Hub: Study Light; Blue Letter Bible // PSALMS: Monergism: Precept Austin: The Treasury of David; John Gill; John Calvin - Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

          [ MUSIC: GENERAL: The Cyber Hymnal // PSALMS: Genevan Psalter (Instrumental). PROVERBS: Book of Proverbs. ECCLESIASTES: Book of Ecclesiastes Dramatized. SONG OF SOLOMON: Song of Solomon Dramatized. ISAIAH: Isaiah Dramatized. JEREMIAH: Jeremiah Dramatized. LAMENTATIONS: Lamentations Dramatized. EZEKIEL: Ezekiel Dramatized. DANIEL: Daniel Dramatized. VARIOUS ARTISTS: Micha'el Ben David. Sons of Korah. Fernando Ortega. Janet Isaac Morrison. Music of the Bible Revealed - Suzanne Haik-Vantoura. Dr. David Erb. Gregorian Chants. ]


John Calvin - CCEL | Analytical Chart - BLB


Gospel Harmony - Summary | The Harmony of the Gospels - Augustine | Gospel Harmony Chart - Online Bible

Greek Harmony of the Gospels - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF) | Gospel Harmony in English - Robertson - (Downloadable PDF)


Hebrew and Greek Interlinear Download - Scripture 4 All

Bible Hub Interlinear Hebrew and Greek Bible

Bible Hub Hebrew Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Hebrew Interlinear

Mounce Interlinear | Bible Hub Greek Interlinear | Scripture 4 All Greek Interlinear Bible


Section 1: Contributors; Section 2: Exposition, Analysis, and Illustration
Sub-Section 1: Explanation & Outline; Sub-Section 2: Resources; Sub-Section 3: Scripture Chapter with Linguistic Dictionary and Encyclopedia Links

Section A-Prime: Intersections
between Scripture, History, Archaeology, and Science
from Creation until Today.


Daniel Detailed Outline

Daniel 11

Map 1: Bible Nations | Map 2: Empire of David and Solomon Map 3: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel | Post Exile Chronology.

2. Spiritual Struggle in the Heavenlies (7:1 - 12:13)

D. The Struggle Among Earthly Rulers and Against God's People - Resolved by the Final Judgment (10:1 - 12:1-13)

2). The Struggle Among the Four Kings of Persia and Consecutive Kings in the South and in the North - Resolved by a Succession of Conquests (11:1-45)

     1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
     2 And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer [shall be rich -- riches greater] than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
     3 And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. 4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.

     5 And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
     6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that bought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
     7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
     10 But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come [and he comes coming], and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress. 11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
     12 And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it. 13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come [he shall come coming] after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
     14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers [sons of robbers of] thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
     15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. 16 But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed. 17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
     18 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. 19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
     20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.

     21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. 22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.
     23 And after the league made with him work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people. 24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
     25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. 26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat [delicacies] shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
     27 And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed. 28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
     29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. 30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. 31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
     32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. 33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
     34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries. 35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
     36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. 37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all. 38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. 39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
     40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind [shall storm upon him], with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. 41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
     42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape [not be for deliverance]. 43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
     44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many. 45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.

Scripture and Its Connections with History, Archaeology, and Science
From Creation to Today
Part 1: Creation to Abraham



Lands of Daniel 11

World History Highlights
(From Creation to the Present)

          Preliminary Note #1: For the convenience of the reader, I have presented links to some of the issues of Biblical interpretation which are relevant, directly and indirectly, to the sections below. THEOLOGY. R. J. Dunzweiler 1. R. J. Dunzweiler 2. Charles Hodge (PDF). OVERVIEWS OF APOLOGETICS (THE DEFENSE OF THE FAITH): Newman. God & Science. NTS. THE TEXT OF THE BIBLE: The Accurate Preservation of the Text of the Bible. Inspiration. SCIENCE (GENERAL): Critique of Science's Assumptions. ARCHEOLOGICAL INSIGHTS INTO SCRIPTURE. Archaeology. THE DOCTRINE OF GOD: God. Trinity. Trinity. Trinity. Trinity - Book by Bickersteth. Messiah 1. Messiah 2. CREATION: Creation. Geology. Geology. EVOLUTION: General. General. Chemistry of Life. Five Problems. Ten Problems. THE DOCTRINE OF MAN: Origins. Early man. Human Migrations.

          Preliminary Note #2: The spiritual struggle detailed in the book of Daniel arose at the beginning of the human race when our first parents, Adam and Eve fell into sin. Their fall was preceded by the fall of Satan and his angels. Those angels (and those who serve God) are arranged in hierarchies, as various Scriptures reveal. Daniel speaks of angels, evil and good, of differing ranks and gives certain details about their interactions in the affairs of God and men. As we may infer from Daniel 10-12, their influence among men is substantial, affecting entire nations.

          When Adam and Eve fell into sin, the whole race was ruined. Since then, as the following linked Scriptures will show, we have become subject to death, darkness, and delusion. To this list, we might add energy draining difficulty that pervades our lives.

          From this darkness and delusion came a multitude of false religions. Likewise came doubts, questions, and denials of God's revelation in the Scriptures. As mankind wandered further and further from Eden, so their hearts wandered farther and farther from God. And so it was that in Daniel's time, the land of Israel was surrounded by powerful nations filled with false religion, and the Israelites were in captivity in Babylon.

          However, the truth of Scripture has been defended by God himself through miracles and fulfilled prophecy in Egypt at the time of the Exodus, in Israel in the time of the Kings, and in the time of Christ and the Apostles, to cite only a few examples. Also, modern defenders of the faith have arisen. Here for example are a series of lectures dedicated to telling us who God is: Lecture 1; Lecture 2; Lecture 3; Lecture 4; Lecture 5; Lecture 6. Answers are also available about the length of creation. Adam and Eve as historical figures (a Word document download). The reliability of the Bible has also been proven; (see the opening note above & the following links): Historicity of Jesus. Authenticity of the Gospels.

1. Ancient History (From Creation to Adam - ? to ? BC)

     Note: The Pentateuch has 14 major sections. Each of these, except the first, has a title which uses the phrase "these are the generations of" or some equivalent. Many genealogies are listed in the Pentateuch, but only those which have individuals who are in direct covenantal relationship with God are given the title "these are the generations of." This keeps the focus on God and his people and their relationship to one another.

          CREATION (Genesis 1:1 - Genesis 2:3). In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1, ESV). This simple statement has profound implications. It tells us that everything is created and that God is the creator. Pagan religions, science, and philosophy often deny one or both of these statements. In some systems of thought, everything is eternal (and therefore uncreated). In other systems, material forces, not God, creates everything.
          The word translated "God" in this chapter is "elohim." It is in the plural form, but the verb "created" is singular, so elohim, in this context, refers to one God. The word "elohim" means "mighty," and the plural ending is used here as a superlative -- meaning "mightiest" or "most-mighty," and in reference to the God of the Bible, "Almighty." The emphasis in Genesis 1 is on God's power. For the most part, God simply speaks, and it is done. In the next chapter, where God is shown in his relationship to man, the emphasis is on the covenantal aspect of that relationship, and the term "Yahweh Elohim" is used, meaning "Eternal Almighty."
          Nothing could exist without this eternal God who is described in the Bible. Something (or someone) eternal must stand behind creation because nothing can come from nothing. Science has discovered deep and pervasive structure in all aspects of nature from the cosmos to the sub-atomic particles and in all the animals, vegetables, minerals, molecules, elements, compounds, and all other aspects of creation. No natural laws have been discovered which produce this structure. Chance, chemistry, and genetics all fail to be able to produce the complexity we can observe. So a natural conclusion is that it was made by someone with unfathomable intelligence who designed everything. The power involved in creating everything is also unfathomable. Only the God of the Bible who is omnipotent, omniscient, and eternal meets all of these qualifications.
          God created everything in 6 days. Among those who believe in the inspiration and authority of the Scriptures, some believe that these days were 24 hours, and others believe that the days were long periods of time or that long periods of time occurred between the days. Both agree that God (the Triune God of the Bible), not evolution or some other god, or person, or force, created everything.

          ADAM & EVE (Genesis 1:26-31); (Genesis 2:4-25). The last and greatest of God's creation was man. God made man (Adam) in his image from dust, and he made woman (Eve) from the rib and flesh of Adam. Evolution teaches that man came from changes in a hominid, not directly from dust. But Scripture says that when God created man, man became a living soul, indicating that he had not been alive before being formed from the dust.
          As for Eve, science knows of no natural process by which non-sexual body tissue can be changed into a person. In theory this could be accomplished by modern cloning techniques by manipulating the genes of a tissue sample; but changing those genes from male to female would require an even higher and more difficult manipulation. It cannot be accomplished by natural, unaided processes. But with God, nothing is impossible. (See the following PDF by Dr. R C Newman)

2. Populating the Earth (From Adam to The Pre-Flood ['Ante-Diluvian'] Fathers - ? to ? BC)

          GENERATIONS OF HEAVEN & EARTH & PLANTS & HERBS (Genesis 2:4 - Genesis 4:26). Solomon says this about man, "See, this alone I found, that God made man upright, but they have sought out many schemes." This refers to The Fall of mankind and the many ways they departed from God's standards afterward. As the account reveals, the punishment of this departure was difficulty and death. Nature was also cursed. These judgments from God explain the natural and human evils that exist in the world. Nevertheless, good still exists among us. This too is from God. And for those who turn back to him in faith and repentance, blessing will become permanent for them and for creation.

          Shortly after The Fall, mankind began to move eastward from Eden. Major theories about its location can be found here. Two of the main theories are that the Garden was in northern Mesopotamia or in southern Mesopotamia. One reason for the difference in the theories is that the phrase "divided into four heads" can refer to the headwaters of the rivers, the mouths of the rivers, or simply to four main rivers that joined the river which went through Eden. A recent theory, supporting a variant of one of these theories, is illustrated in the following map and is explained in more detail in a YouTube video which places Eden in the Persian Gulf. In this theory, two rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris or Hiddekel, known to Daniel as "the Great River") flowed into the northern part of the Eden River. Two other rivers (the Pison or Pishon and the Gihon) were located at or near the southern end of the Eden River. (Many other theories, some of which are plausible and others less plausible, can be found by an internet and literature search.)

          When God expelled Adam and Eve from the garden, he placed a guard at the eastern entrance (which may have been the only entrance). Presumably Adam and Eve moved eastward, away from the area. They had two sons, Cain and Abel. Both made an offering to God, but God accepted Able, not Cain. Out of envy, Cain killed Abel. For this murder, the LORD exiled him, and Cain moved eastward into the land of Nod (meaning "wandering"). The Location of Nod is unknown.

          From this point on, humanity began to disperse. How widely and how soon is unclear. They may have stayed in the area around the Garden of Eden (Mesopotamia) until the Flood. Setting aside the issue of dates, notice, in the quotes below, the broad correspondence between the scientific material and the Biblical material.

          An article in the Smithsonian Magazine gives the archaeological viewpoint: "As the gaps are filled, the story is likely to change, but in broad outline, today's scientists believe that from their beginnings in Africa, the modern humans went first to Asia between 80,000 and 60,000 years ago. By 45,000 years ago, or possibly earlier, they had settled Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia. The moderns entered Europe around 40,000 years ago, probably via two routes: from Turkey along the Danube corridor into eastern Europe, and along the Mediterranean coast. By 35,000 years ago, they were firmly established in most of the Old World. The Neanderthals, forced into mountain strongholds in Croatia, the Iberian Peninsula, the Crimea and elsewhere, would become extinct 25,000 years ago. Finally, around 15,000 years ago, humans crossed from Asia to North America and from there to South America."

          The following quote from a Wikipedia article clarifies the previous Smithsonian quote about migrations into Asia: "The earliest human migrations out of Africa occurred through the Middle East, namely over the Levantine corridor ..." [This corridor ran along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean and connected to Mesopotamia, where the garden of Eden may have been located.] The point to be noted here is that human migrations began first in this area. From the Bible we may infer that "migration" began with Cain's exile. Differences exist between the two accounts, but I suggest that the similarities between the scientific and the Biblical data be regarded as a cause for further investigation. The question to be answered is this: 'Are the two accounts essentially the same, or is the correspondence merely accidental?'

          The section ("Generations of Heaven and Earth & Plants & Herbs") closes with an account of some of the descendants of Cain and some of their accomplishments. It also mentions the birth of Seth, whom the LORD gave as a replacement for Abel. Seth had a son called Enos or Enosh. At that time people began to call on the name of Yahweh (Jehovah). This was God's covenantal name, and the phrase is used to indicate a covenantal, saving relationship with the LORD. Similar phrases with similar implications occur in various places in Scripture. For example, Psalm 116:13 (ESV) says, "I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the LORD." The context speaks of prayers, deliverance, thanks, vows and other covenantal language. (See also Psalm 116:17; Zephaniah 3:9; Romans 10:13; 1 Corinthians 1:2). Later, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Israel, Moses, Daniel, and many others, especially the Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ, arose from this line and continued the covenantal relationship with God.

          GENERATIONS OF ADAM (Genesis 5:1 - Genesis 6:8). This section lists the descendants of Adam through his son Seth down to Noah and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Everyone mentioned had other sons and daughters, except for Noah, who had only Shem, Ham, and Japheth. The lifespans mentioned here and in chapter 11 may include the duration of the patriarch's family or clan.
          A previous Scripture gives some details about how Seth came to be Adam's chief son: After Cain (who had been rejected by God) killed Abel (who had God's favor), Adam and Eve had another son, Seth, who, like his brother Abel, was also acceptable to the LORD. Adam and Eve, and Seth and Cain, had numerous sons and daughters who are not listed in the genealogies. Instead, Scripture focuses on Seth and his descendants at this point in the narrative. The Sethites were extremely important because Noah and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth came from this line. And only these four and their wives survived the Great Flood which God sent to judge mankind for their wickedness.
          Also, several notable men arose in Seth's line. Enoch walked with and pleased God and was taken to heaven without dying. Methuselah was the longest lived person (or clan) in the Bible. Lamech prophesied that his son Noah would deliver mankind from the curse which the LORD had placed on the ground. (And, in fulfillment of that prophecy, after the flood, God pronounced a blessing on the ground, the creatures of earth, and the descendants of Noah.)

          GENERATIONS OF NOAH (Genesis 6:9 - Genesis 9:29). Noah was a righteous and blameless man who walked with God, and he had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. God revealed to Noah that within 120 years he would destroy the earth and its inhabitants because they were corrupt and violent.
          The LORD then showed Noah how to build a boat (an Ark) that was big enough to carry him and the other 7 members of his family and a male and a female of every kind of bird, animal, and creeping thing. After the 120 years elapsed, the LORD put Noah, his family, and the animals into the Ark. He sealed the door, and a week later he sent the flood.
          Among those who hold to the inspiration and historicity of the Bible, two opinions have arisen about the extent of the Great Flood of Noah. Some believe that it covered the whole globe as we now know it. Others believe that it covered the world as the ancients knew it -- especially what we now call the Arabian Peninsula. This includes the southern part of Mesopotamia (the region in and around the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. These are part of a larger area called the Middle East).

          *** PLEASE NOTE. I will not engage in a debate about the two views. Instead, I will show how I believe the flood affected the region where Noah lived. It should be obvious that the Flood would have affected any region in which it occurred in similar ways. I hope that my comments will provide avenues of inquiry for those who want to study the flood in more detail.

          Mankind was prone to settle in the "East," i.e., the Arabian Peninsula, particularly Mesopotamia, both before and after the Flood. They continued doing so until they were forcibly dispersed as they were attempting to build the Tower of Babel. And we know, without question, that the Flood was definitely in that region.
          If, when the Flood came, mankind had not yet migrated out of the Arabian Peninsula / Mesopotamia, then a flood confined to that region would have destroyed all of them plus everything else that breathed. The area is so large that the passengers in a boat floating in the midst of those waters would see only water and sky. Thus the phrase "under the whole heaven," and similar phrases, would correctly apply to what they saw. The same is true, of course, for a global flood. But the question upon which I want to focus, is not "Where" but "How did the Flood arise."
          As can be seen from the linked topographical map, the region is enclosed by mountains except for a gap in the southeast in what is now called Oman. Likewise, the region is also surrounded on all four sides by substantial bodies of water. Any, or all, of these could have been the source of the "fountains of the Great Deep" (Genesis 7:11). Elsewhere, Moses referred to the Red Sea (Sea of Reeds) as "the Great Deep." This may or may not be a source of the "fountains of the Great Deep." The phrase, particularly the word "deep," may also include subterranean waters, as it does elsewhere in Scripture -- (see the Scriptures listed under the word "deep).
          In my opinion, however, The Persian Gulf is particularly suited to be the source of the "fountains of the Great Deep." It is the upper (northern) part of the Indian Ocean which is the third largest of the world's oceans. The Indian Ocean contains several tectonic plates which fracture periodically and can cause tsunamis such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand in 2004. Such fracturing may be what the Bible refers to as the fountains of the Great Deep being "broken up" (bursting forth, cleaving, ripping, tearing). Multiple tsunamis could have been involved. The waters may have poured into the gap in the surrounding mountains, as mentioned above. In this regard, notice on the Britannica elevation map that the low elevations along the western shore of the Persian Gulf would have provided an easy land channel for flood waters all the way to the Mesopotamian region.
          As for the possibility of groundwater being involved, look at the linked map which depicts extensive groundwater in the region. Also notice the fault zones in the area. And here they are combined. Abundant water exists beneath the area.
          The rain could also have contributed more water than one might suppose. The rain from the clouds would have been substantial, but the effect would be magnified if the rain fell not just on the plains but in the mountains as well. Snow packs and glaciers would have experienced some (perhaps total) melting; mountain rivers would have flooded, gullies and other features that were normally dry would have channeled runoff, and the net effect would be that water would pour in from the mountains on all sides. This, combined with the waters of the fountains of the great deep (from the sea and/or the land) would be enormous. (For the side issue of glaciation, follow the YouTube link provided.)
          No person or animal could have survived such an onslaught without the kind of protection provided by a seaworthy craft such as Noah's stocked with food. Anyone who could cling to driftwood would die of hypothermia within hours or less under such adverse conditions. A person who could get aboard a boat would die of starvation in 61 days or less. The flood lasted 365 days -- far longer than the survival time for even the most "optimistic" of scenarios without the Ark.
          SOME COMPARISONS. It is misleading to use the term "local" to describe a flood of the area(s) mentioned. The Arabian Peninsula is vast (1,200 miles long and 1,300 miles wide; 1,250,000 square miles ). It is about the size of the sub-continent of India (1,269,219 square miles). If we compare the area of the Arabian Peninsula to a comparable area of water, it seems, as far as I can calculate, that a matching body of water would extend from the shores of Pakistan to a line stretching from Mogadishu on the coast of Somalia across the Ocean to the southern tip of Sri Lanka, as seen on the following map. Likewise, the Middle East is vast (3,596,959 square miles). This is an area a bit bigger than the combined areas of the Kara Sea, the Barents Sea, and the Greenland Sea in the Arctic Ocean -- (map). It is a bit bigger than the continent of Australia (3,300,000 square miles). Even Mesopotamia is quite sizeable -- 10,000 square miles. Two lakes (the 9th and 10th in size in the world) match the Mesopotamian area in size: Great Slave Lake in Canada (10,000 square miles) and Lake Malawi aka Lake Nyasa in Africa (11,400 square miles).
          Noah's Ark was 30 cubits or 43 to 56 feet high, depending on the length of a cubit. By these estimates, the windows at the top of the Ark would have been 21.5 or 28 feet above the flood waters, assuming the Ark had a draft of about 15 cubits. Using the 28 foot figure, the visibility in any direction, according to various estimates would be about 6.5 miles to 9 miles. In any sizeable body of water, such as those described, only water would be visible on all horizons, i.e., "under the whole heaven" (Genesis 7:19).
          A disturbance of the size and duration of the Flood would have global effects even though the waters may not have covered the globe. Weather disturbances, a rise in coastal sea levels, and numerous other effects would occur.
          For those interested, the Scriptural reasoning behind the Regional Flood view can be found in the following Universal Flood essay by Dr. Daniel Wonderly: PDF Version -- Page 1; Page 2; Page 3; Page 4.
          The Flood lasted for a year. Noah sacrificed some of the animals, and the LORD blessed him, the animals, and the ground; and he promised never again to destroy everything by a flood.
          In the following years, Ham sinned against Noah by not covering Noah's nakedness when he was drunk and uncovered in his tent. Instead he told his brothers about it. The brothers covered Noah, and when Noah awoke, he pronounced a curse on Ham's son Canaan.

3. Repopulating the Earth (from the Post-Flood ['Post-Diluvian'] Fathers to Abraham - ? - 2300 BC)

          GENERATIONS OF THE SONS OF NOAH (Genesis 10:1 - Genesis 11:9). After the flood, the survivors settled in Ararat (Armenia) where the Ark landed. This was north of the Persian Gulf, and subsequent generations moved eastward (south-eastward) into the land of Shinar (Chaldea or Babylonia) where they built a great tower and were unified for a time. From there, the LORD scattered them in all directions where they formed the nations mentioned in Genesis 10-11 and other Scriptures.
          The Table of Nations recorded in Genesis 10-11 contains information that is better than any other ancient document. In the words of top archaeologist William F. Albright "The Table of Nations remains an astonishingly accurate document." The following combined map gives two similar visual representations of the Genesis material.
          The most significant thing we learn is that, after the Flood, all of mankind descended from Noah through his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Various nations arose from these three family lines. How these family lines translate into "race" is difficult to tell due to genetic mixing and variation.
          Mixing and variation would have begun, not just with Noah, but at the dawn of the human race. When God created Eve from Adam's rib and flesh the variation began. A man's genes were changed into a woman's genes. Did the LORD introduce further variation at this point? For instance, Adam was probably reddish-brown in color. His name means "Red." Was Eve of the same color? Was she given genetic differences in her skeletal structure, in her bodily characteristics, or in other aspects of her genetic makeup? Whatever the answer, variation advanced when they had sons and daughters. And it continued when those sons and daughters and their sons and daughters intermarried. How far it advanced by the time of flood, Scripture does not tell us.
          Moreover, as many as six genetic strains may have been represented by Noah's family. Noah and his wife may have been from two different strains. Their three sons would be a combination of their parent's strains, making a third strain. The three wives of the three sons may have each been from a different strain, making a total of six possible genetic strains to restart the repopulation of the earth.

           *** At this juncture in the discussion, I suggest that the reader look at the following, easy-to-follow slide presentation which gives a good look at race origins from a Biblical viewpoint.

          A traditional but outdated opinion is that the races have three broad divisions, in three main areas of the Globe, distinguished, in part, by typical skin colors: Yellow (the Mongoloid race from Shem - populated Asia, & later the Americas); Black/Brown/Red (the Negroid race from Ham - populated Africa, & later Australia); White (the Caucasoid race from Japheth - populated Europe).
          It should be noted, however, that the Genesis material concentrates on the nations which were closest to Israel, particularly the Indo-European region. As a previously cited map theorizes, the descendants of Ham apparently clustered mainly around the eastern, northern, and southern shores of the Mediterranean & Arabia: likewise, the descendants of Shem and Japheth populated some of the same areas, but they also expanded as far west as the Atlantic and as far east as the borders of China and India. It is plausible to suggest that the populations of China and India came largely from the descendants of Japheth, Shem, or both. But descendants of Ham may also have intermingled in those nations.
          A map published in 1823 depicts a common view of how the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth spread.
          It is difficult to tell what line or lines of Noah's descendants populated China, India, the Americas, and Australia. The matter is particularly difficult for China. The Han Chinese, for example, are a distinct ethnic group, and they make up over 91% of China's population. Other East Asians have distinct lineages which are traceable mainly to the area in which they live.
          Here, for example, is a look at haplogroups human migrations from a genetics point of view. The following article explains the map.
          Here is another viewpoint. The explanatory material that comes with the following map says that human migration proceeded approximately as follows:
          Africa; Levant (mainly Syria and Palestine / Israel) -- (& also Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor -- mainly Turkey, and Greece); Coastal Migrations; Oceania; India; Indochina (Southeast Asia); Laos; Near East; Europe; Aurignacian; Tasmania; Australia; Papua; Mammoth steppe (Mal'ta-Buret' culture); Korea; Japan; Taiwan; Cambodia; Austronesian; Beringia; Americas; northern Eurasia; Green Sahara; Norse to Iceland.
          Even though modern studies are more detailed than the Biblical account, it is nevertheless true that science, using archaeology, linguistics, and genetics, reconstructs the movements of mankind in a way that is similar to the Bible account. Differences in the two accounts are for several reasons: There are gaps in the Bible's genealogical records; the Bible covers a smaller geographical area than the Scientific data; some of the nations mentioned in the Bible cannot be identified; and the implications arising from linguistics and genetics are not always clear. The Bible and the Scientific data, therefore, do not contradict one another; they supplement each other. To see a visual comparison between the Biblical material and the scientific material, click on the following combined map.
          I have not yet seen a thoroughly worked-out system of coordinating the Biblical historical accounts with archaeological and scientific data. Until someone does that, I offer my suggestions below as possible tie-ins to the Biblical material. I suggest that the reader consider any system of dating until the time of Abraham to be guides to further study, not as settled facts. Dates after the time of Abraham begin to be more easily fixed as we draw closer and closer to the modern era.
          The Kebaran or Kebarian culture (c. 16,000 to 10,500 BC) is an early human population. They were nomadic, and their range was from Egypt to the Euphrates River. After them, and perhaps from them, came the Natufian culture (13,000 to 9,500 BC). They were sedentary or semi-sedentary, and one of their settlements was on the site now known as Jericho.
          Jericho was one of the oldest continually inhabited towns known. Archaeologists date early, seasonal settlements there to 10,000 BC. Permanent settlements began around 9,500 to 9,000 BC. They fed themselves by hunting and agriculture. Around 8300 BC the inhabitants built a wall and a circular tower, possibly for defense and worship, respectively.
          Around 7000 BC the Jiahu culture began in China. By 6,000 BC they had developed the Jiahu Symbols, which may have been precursors of a writing system.
          Between 5500 and 4000 BC, Sumerians had permanently settled in southern Mesopotamia. They called themselves the "Black Headed Ones" or "Black-Headed People." Around 5400 BC, on the north-western coast of the Persian Gulf, they founded Eridu, one of the oldest cities in southern Mesopotamia and one of the earliest cities in the world. In the same area they founded Ur (c. 3800 BC), and further north they founded Uruk (c. 4000 BC). And still further north the Akkadian King Sargon The Great apparently founded Babylon (c. 2334 BC), which became infamous in Bible times and was both a nemesis and a friend to Israel in the time of Daniel.

In regard to racism, the definitive word is this: (Acts 17:26-28)

26 And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth,
having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place,
27 that they should seek God, and perhaps feel their way toward him and find him.
Yet he is actually not far from each one of us, 28 for
" 'In him we live and move and have our being;'
as even some of your own poets have said,
" 'For we are indeed his offspring.'

     The word translated "nation" is "ethnos" - ethnicity, race (and their near synonyms- tribes, foreigners, people, nations). The passage tells us three things about ourselves. It says that we are one, that we all have a place in the earth, and we all have an opportunity to seek God.
     When we allow social norms, political ideologies, economic considerations, and cultural norms to become the key ways by which we relate to one another, we thereby sin against God and against one another. We deny the blood that unites us, and we deny the image of God within us. The darkness that follows can be seen parading in the streets with fists and voices raised, and even in mixed groups, diverse in appearance, exchanging polite and winsome words devoid of the love which the words imitate.
     These things are so even among Christians in spite of the fact that God says, "Here there is not Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave, free; but Christ is all, and in all" (Colossians 3:11). This is not mere sentiment, nor is it mere civility; it is, as we may infer from the preceding verse, something that comes from the new self. It is, therefore, the expected and necessary response to one another which must govern all of our interactions.
     Otherwise, we rebel against God, damage an unbreakable bond, and do violence to our own nature, defiling our spirit thereby. In our hearts, if not in our words, (Colossians 3:8) we slander one another as inferior, or dangerous, or hate-filled. Such attitudes (Colossians 3:12) cause kindness and humility to hemorrhage from our souls, hardly noticed, except by God.
     It should be unnecessary for non-white people to have to prove their equality or their worth. They already have both from God. If we deny it, we steal it from them. For example, it was non-white people who built the remarkable and seminal civilizations of Egypt (Nubians, etc.) and Sumaria ("black-headed people," as they called themselves).
     It was an African, Augustine of Hippo, of whom one historian said, "Augustine's impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated; only his beloved example, Paul of Tarsus, has been more influential."
     Similar examples can be found that show the accomplishments of any other "race" (a somewhat imprecise term). But the Biblical point is that all men are inherently equal and inherently worthwhile. Accomplishments demonstrate a part of that worth, but only secondarily.
     Until we follow Christ's example of love and humility in these matters, we will be disobedient and injurious. Therefore, "in humility count others more significant than yourselves" (Philippians 2:3).

          GENERATIONS OF SHEM (Genesis 11:10 - Genesis 11:26). This section is the last part of the "Table of the Nations." It traces the descendants of Noah's son Shem from Shem's first son Arphaxad to his descendant Terah and Terah's sons Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

          This section mentions Eber who may have been the ancestor of the Hebrews, later called the nation of Israel. (He is different than Heber, the grandson of Asher -- Genesis 46:17).

          The key significance of this section is that Abraham, who received God's key covenant, was born. How long it was between Shem and Abraham is hard to tell. It is of secondary significance compared to the relationship between Abraham and God, as described in the next section. Nevertheless, the time element here and elsewhere in the genealogies is a matter of considerable discussion.

          Whenever we examine genealogies in the Bible we encounter two schools of thought. One school states that the genealogies contain few or no gaps, and a complete chronology from creation to Christ and the Apostles can be deduced from them. The other school states that the genealogies contain significant gaps, and a complete chronology cannot be deduced from them. An example of the first viewpoint can be found here. An example of the second viewpoint can be found here, and in more detail here. The following article gives a good overview of how the Bible uses genealogies without discussing the issue of dating.

          EGYPT. Egypt's First Dynasty, founded by Menes (possibly the same as Narmer), began c. 3150 BC, a bit less than 1,000 years (984) before Abraham was born (2166 BC). In that period of time, Egypt was in its ninth dynasty. Other famous pharaohs in these years were Djoser/Sesorthos (c 2686 - 2648 BC), and Sneferu (2613-2589 BC), and . Djoser apparently built Egypt's first pyramid. Over the years, Egyptians built 118 to 138 Pyramids. Sneferu built at least three of these pyramids including the famous Red Pyramid. Khufu/Cheops (2589-2566 BC), the son of Sneferu, was the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the last of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

          MESOPOTAMIA. In Mesopotamia, Sargon of Akkad/Sargon the Great (c. 2334-2284 BC) supplanted the Sumerian civilization in southern Mesopotamia by forming the first empire in recorded history. It ruled all of Mesopotamia by bringing all of its kings under his control. Sargon was roughly contemporary with the first four Pharaohs in Egypt's Sixth Dynasty.

          CHINA. Jiahu (7000-5700 BC) was perhaps the earliest settlement in China. It was in China's central plain, near the Yellow River. It was a Neolithic agricultural community which lasted from 7000-5700 BC, when it was destroyed by a flood. Its size was 5.5 hectares, which is 13.585 acres, nearly the size of 14 American football fields. It was surrounded by a moat, possibly for defence. Most archaeologists think it was part of the Peiligang culture (7000-5000 BC) which included over 100 sites, but others think they were separate but interacting cultures. The Yangshao culture (5000-3000 BC) invented silk processing (sometime before 3630 BC). The Yangshao were followed by the Longshan Culture (c. 3000 - c. 1900 BC) which is noted for its very beautiful polished thin-walled black pottery.

          INDIA. Around 6500 BC, people began domesticating animals and crops in the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan and western India. From this came the Indus Valley (or Harappan) Civilization (3300-1300 BC). It includes large cities such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Crafts were prevalent, and trade was widespread.

          THE AMERICAS. The Americas were the last parts of the earth to be inhabited. Paleo-Indians were the first humans to enter the Americas, and they came first to Alaska. Various groups of them gathered food by a variety of means: hunting & gathering, aquaculture, and agriculture, and mixtures of these. Their dwellings ranged from simple settlements to large well-organized cities with monumental architecture and complex systems of law and government. Math and astronomy flourished in many places.

          North America.

               By 11,000 BC (13,000 BP - i.e., 'Before the Present') the earliest settlers had spread widely in the Americas. By 6,000 BC, sedentary settlements developed.

               Later, in the upper reaches of the Northern Hemisphere, the Saqqaq culture (Paleo-Inuit/Paleo-Eskimo people) came from Canada into Greenland about 2500 BC. This was about 334 years before the birth of Abraham.

               Considerably later, the Mississippian Culture (800-1600 AD) and the Cahokia Culture (c. 1050-1350 AD) flourished in North America.

          Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

               Trinidad was the first Caribbean island to be settled (9000/8000 BC). Afterward (between 3500 and 3000 BC) settlers came to a number of other Caribbean Islands.

               Thousands of years later, the Saladoid people (800-200 BC) from the Orinoco region in South America settled in the Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola.

               In Mesoamerica many cultures flourished. I will list some of the best known of these: The Olmecs (c. 2,500 - 400 BC); the Maya (c. 2,000 BC - 250 AD); the Toltec (c. 900-1521 BC); the Zapotec (c. 700 BC - 1521 AD). The Aztecs arose in the modern area (1300-1521 AD).

          South America.

               People arrived in South America around 9,000 BC. They formed many cultures. Among these, the Norte Chico/Caral/Caral-Supe civilization (c. 3,700 - c. 1,800 BC) on the central coast of Peru is considered the oldest-known civilization in the Americas. Its earliest city was Huaricanga (c. 3500 BC). It has three earthwork mounds which may be the remains of pyramid type structures. Another Norte Chico city, Caral, or Caral-Chupacigarro (c. 2600 - c. 2000 BC) has pyramid-like structures that date to the Pyramid period in Egypt (c. 2670 - c. 664 BC). This city came to an end near the end of Abraham's life (1991 BC).

               Afterwards, also in Peru, arose the Chavin Culture (900-200 BC). They were expert builders and metalworkers and are also noted for their art.

               They were followed much later by the Nazca (100 BC - 800 AD). The Nazca are famous for geoglyphs called the Nazca Lines which probably have some religious significance and possibly other meanings as well.

               The famous Inca Empire (1483-1533 AD) did not arise until the modern era. It covered most of the western coast of South America. Its most famous city is, perhaps, Machu Picchu.


               According to an article in the Smithsonian Magazine, referenced above, Australia was one of the places settled after migrations into Asia. They would have had to journey there by sea, so they must have had sea-worthy crafts of some sort. This would have made them some of mankind's earliest mariners. They were hunter-gatherers, and religiously they were animistic.

               According to a Wikipedia article, "By 1788 [AD], the population existed as 250 individual nations, many of which were in alliance with one another, and within each nation there existed several clans, from as few as five or six to as many as 30 or 40. Each nation had its own language and a few had multiple, thus over 250 languages existed, around 200 of which are now extinct. 'Intricate kinship rules ordered the social relations of the people and diplomatic messengers and meeting rituals smoothed relations between groups', keeping group fighting, sorcery and domestic disputes to a minimum."


               From 1786 AD onward, as mentioned in a Wikipedia article, "the first semi-permanent inhabitants of regions near Antarctica (areas situated south of the Antarctic Convergence) were British and American sealers who used to spend a year or more on South Georgia."

4. The Establishment of Israel (Abraham to Moses 2300 BC to 1446 BC)

          GENERATIONS OF TERAH (Genesis 11:27 - Genesis 25:11) - 2296 - 1991 B.C. Canaan. Chapter 11 ends with an account of Terah's family, especially Lot and Abraham. In the next 14 chapters, great attention is given to Abraham and his family.
          Everyone mentioned in Genesis 11:27-32 is important in the subsequent history of Abraham, his family, and the nation of Israel. It is the importance of all of the people mentioned that makes this the generations of Terah, not just the generations of Abraham. To gain further insight into the importance of all who are mentioned, read the following articles: Terah; Abram (Abraham); Nahor; Haran; Lot; Sarai (Sarah); Milcah; Iscah.
          The events of this section occur over a period of 305 years, and the section covers all, or parts, of 15 chapters. In all of them, Abraham is prominent. Moses shows the key importance of Abraham in a striking way. He begins with the full family of Abraham and narrows the focus until we see Abraham only. The dates in the outline provided below begin with the birth of Terah and conclude with the death of Abraham. For additional information, see my Genesis Detailed Outline and my Pentateuch Detailed Outline.

          A. The Extended Family in Ur (Terah, Abraham, Nahor, Haran, Lot) (Genesis 11:27 - Genesis 11:30) - 2296 - 2093 B.C. Ur - [Abraham 2166-1991 BC]
          B. The Narrower Family in Haran (Terah, Abraham, & Lot) (Genesis 11:31 - Genesis 11:32) - 2093 - 2091 B.C. Haran
          C. The Still Narrower Family in Bethel (Abraham & Lot) Genesis 12:1 - Genesis 19:38) - 2091 - 2082 B.C. Canaan
               1). Abraham With Lot - (Genesis 12:1 - Genesis 13:13) - 2091 - 2082 B.C. Canaan
               2). Abraham Near Lot - (Genesis 13:14 - Genesis 19:38) - 2091 - 2082 B.C. Canaan
          D. The Nuclear Family in Hebron and Elsewhere (Abraham) (Genesis 20:1 - Genesis 25:11) - 2082 - 1991 B.C. Canaan

          Terah (2296-2091 BC) was born near the end of the reign of Sargon of Akkad/Sargon the Great (c. 2334-2284 BC) who ruled Mesopotamia and was possibly the first emperor known to history. Around the time Terah was born (2296 BC) Stonehenge (3000-2000 BC) was under construction in England. In 2200, according to some scholars, about 34 years before Abraham was born, Troy (founded in 3500 BC) was destroyed by fire. (However, the conquest of Troy which was mentioned by Homer may have been around 1000 years later -- somewhere between 1260-1190 BC). In Egypt, a little past the midpoint of Terah's life, Egypt entered into The First Intermediate Period and fell into a period of political and social chaos for about 125 years (c. 2181-2055 BC). During this time two Egyptian kings vied for power, and temples, artwork, and statues of kings were vandalized. Afterwards, Mentuhotep II/Nephepetre (c. 2061-2010 BC) reunited Egypt. The Xia Dynasty (2205-1766 BC), China's first dynasty, arose in China. Its first Emperor (a contemporary of Abraham) was Yu the Great (born c. 2123 died c. 2025 BC), who was an expert at flood control and achieved legendary status for his ability. Around 1900 BC, about the time of Abraham's death, the Sumerians (c. 4500 - c. 1900 BC) were supplanted by the Amorites (c. 2000 - c. 1600 BC) and soon disappeared from history. In western India and Pakistan, the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1900 BC) was in its latter centuries during the time of Terah and Abraham (2296-1991 BC).

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